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What’s the difference between a content morpheme and a function morpheme?What is a heuristic? What is the generally good aspect of using heuristics in reasoning? Be able to provide an example where using a heuristic leads to the wrong conclusion.
e definitions of each
o Grammar (syntax + morphology)
o A writing system (optional component)
• What’s a morpheme? What’s the difference between a content morpheme and a function morpheme?
• Language milestones: What can children do at various ages between birth and 5 years?
• Acquiring a first language has variously been explained by learning theories, nativist theories, and interactionisttheories. Understand the basic idea of each. The famous debate between Skinner and Chomsky contrasted which two of these, who was on each side?
• What does it mean to say that there is a critical period for language acquisition? What are the arguments for and against this idea?
• Where are Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas in the brain? How were they discovered? Are these the only brain areas responsible for human language?
• Which cortical hemisphere does the majority of language processing? How do we know?
• What is the linguistic relativity hypothesis?
o What kind of information does a “path” verb contain?
o What kind of information does a “manner” verb contain?
o Are path verbs or manner verbs more common in English? Are path verbs or manner verbs more common in Spanish and Greek?
o What would the linguistic relativity hypothesis predict about English versus Greek speakers judging the similarity of human actions or events involving motion? Have actual experiments supported that prediction?
o Understand the color-matching experiment in English and Russian speakers described in the textbook
• Categories & Concepts
o Rules versus family resemblance – definition of these terms. What is an example of a category with a clear membership rule? Example of a category with no rule, but family resemblance among members.
o Prototype, exemplar. Be able to define both of these.
o Neural basis of categorical knowledge
? Is everything stored in the same brain area? How do we know the answer to this question?
? Living things versus non-living things. Is one type of concept just more complicated/difficult than the other? How do we know the answer to this question?
? How does the sensory-motor theory explain the loss of some concepts but not others after brain damage?
Reasoning & Decision Making (Chapter 9, Lecture 16)
• Be able to apply the formula for a rational choicebetween options. Best choice = (value of the outcome) x (probability of that outcome occurring).
• Ways that human reasoning deviates from perfectly rational. For each of the reasoning errors below, be able to offer a short definition and recognize an example of flawed reasoning that stems from this error.
o Working with probabilities (percents) versus frequencies (numbers)
o Availability bias
o Conjunction fallacy
o Representativeness heuristic
o Framing effects
o Sunk-cost fallacy
• What is a heuristic? What is the generally good aspect of using heuristics in reasoning? Be able to provide an example where using a heuristic leads to the wrong conclusion.
• What does base rate mean? Why is it important when we are attempting to classify an item (assign it to a category)?
• Prospect theory notes that in many experimental studies,people will take a risk when there’s a possibility of avoiding a loss, but prefer to avoid risks when choosing between two possible gains. Below is one worked-out example of a situation involving loss, and how Prospect Theory applies. Be able to analyze the second situation (and new situations) in the same way.
o John got some extra income from a side job this year, and is trying to decide whether to declare it on his income tax return. Here are John’s options:
A. Declare income and pay $2000 in taxes (100% certainty of losing $2000)
B. Do not declare the income and pay no income tax. In this case, there is a 50% possibility that John will be audited, in which case he will have to pay $6000 as a combination of taxes and penalties.
• Which option would a perfectly rational decision-maker pick? (ignoring ethical considerations).
o Expected payoff (actually a loss) for Option A: $-2000 ($-2000 x 100%)
o Expected payoff for Option B: $-3000 ($-6000 x 50%) + ($0 x 50%)
o Rational decision maker picks Option A
• According to Prospect Theory, which option is John most likely to pick? (ignoring ethical considerations)
o According to Prospect Theory, people will take more risk when trying to avoid a loss, so that John is likely to pick Option B
o Elena won $50,000 playing the lottery. She wants to use this as a down payment on a house, but not until a year from now when she was planning to move to a new city. So she’s trying to decide what to do with the lottery winnings in the meantime. Her choices are:
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