What would provide evidence that habituation has occurred?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The infant opens her mouth to mimic the mother’s open mouth.
[removed] The infant visually follows the caregiver who is walking across the room.
[removed] The infant’s response decreases each time she sees the same red teddy bear.
[removed] The infants pays attention to a new toy handed to her.

 

Question 2.2.

Plasticity means ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] the neurons in the infant’s brain are connected in a random manner, and all the patterns depend on experience
[removed] the basic organization of areas of the brain depend on early experience
[removed] there is no relationship between experience and neural development
[removed] sensory experiences can strengthen certain neural pathways; less used pathways may disappear

 

Question 3.3.

The relatively stable characteristics of a child’s response to the environment including activity level, sociability, and emotionality are called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] temperament
[removed] reflexes
[removed] attachment
[removed] personality

 

Question 4.4.

Motor reflexes undergo some transformations during infancy. What is the typical pattern of change? Think about reaching and grasping as an example.

(Points : 2)

[removed] Motor control begins in the hands and fingers and moves toward the trunk.
[removed] Motor control shifts from the feet to the hands and shoulders.
[removed] Involuntary behavior disappears and voluntary behavior emerges with practice.
[removed] Voluntary behavior becomes involuntary behavior.

 

Question 5.5.

Infants who exhibit a pattern of intense negative reactions to unfamiliar objects, negative mood, and are slow to adapt are displaying which type of temperament?

(Points : 2)

[removed] difficult
[removed] shy
[removed] uninhibited
[removed] slow to warm up

 

Question 6.6.

Which of the following behaviors is NOT used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?

(Points : 2)

[removed] greater relaxation and expressions of comfort with the caregiver
[removed] greater distress with the caregiver than with strangers
[removed] expressions of distress when the caregiver is absent
[removed] efforts by the infant to maintain contact with the caregiver

 

Question 7.7.

Babies who avoid contact with their mothers after separation or who ignore her efforts to interact have a(n) ____ attachment.

(Points : 2)

[removed] secure
[removed] insecure
[removed] anxious-resistant
[removed] anxious-avoidant

 

Question 8.8.

Which attachment pattern is linked with the most serious mental health problems in later childhood?

(Points : 2)

[removed] anxious-avoidant
[removed] anxious-resistant
[removed] secure
[removed] disorganized

 

Question 9.9.

Which of the following has been consistently observed to be a consequence of secure attachments formed in infancy?

(Points : 2)

[removed] success in job placement after college
[removed] positive, close peer relationships in childhood and adolescence
[removed] meaningful relationships with one’s grandchildren in later adulthood
[removed] an ability to face one’s death without great fear

 

Question 10.10.

Which statement best reflects the apparent connection between infant temperament and attachment?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The infant’s temperament influences parental interactions with the infant to form attachment.
[removed] An infant’s temperament is a strong predictor of the type of attachment that will be formed.
[removed] The infant’s temperament influences the caregiver’s self-esteem.
[removed] Only sociable babies form secure attachments.

 

Question 11.11.

In the study of an intervention with mothers and infants who were classified as having an anxious attachment, which one of the following was an outcome of the intervention?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The mothers increased their self-acceptance.
[removed] The mothers showed greater empathy for their children.
[removed] The children improved in their ability to regulate their behavior in coordination with their mother’s.
[removed] All of these.

 

Question 12.12.

According to the “Theory” theory, infants start out with some basic sensory, motor, and cognitive structures. What might modify these structures?

(Points : 2)

[removed] experiences that provide new information
[removed] experiences that support and confirm the structures
[removed] gazing and concentrating
[removed] parental warmth

 

Question 13.13.

What are the first and last phases in the development of causal schemes during the sensorimotor period?

(Points : 2)

[removed] reflexes; experimentation with new means
[removed] reflexes; insight
[removed] first habits; insight
[removed] first habits; experimentation with means

 

Question 14.14.

Objects do not cease to exist when they are out of reach or view. This concept is referred to as ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] scheme
[removed] primitive causality
[removed] means-end relationship
[removed] object permanence

 

Question 15.15.

Which of the following family factors is tied to increases in an infant’s negative emotionality?

(Points : 2)

[removed] being a first born child
[removed] high levels of marital dissatisfaction for mother or father
[removed] low educational level of mother
[removed] lack of grandparent involvement in childcare

 

Question 16.16.

On her first birthday, Emily looks at her mother as they observe the clown coming to her party. At first Emily is crying. Then her mother smiles and acts very happy, so Emily smiles, too. This is an example of ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] empathy
[removed] attachment
[removed] visual acuity
[removed] social referencing

 

Question 17.17.

Within the process of communication, which of the following patterns builds a sense of mutuality between the infant and the caregiver?

(Points : 2)

[removed] attend, protest, anger
[removed] trust, mistrust, withdrawal
[removed] coordination, mismatch, repair
[removed] coordination, mismatch, protest

 

Question 18.18.

Mental images, symbolic drawing, and imitation in the absence of a model are examples of which of the following?

(Points : 2)

[removed] concrete thinking
[removed] operational schemes
[removed] representational thinking
[removed] hypothetico-deductive reasoning

 

Question 19.19.

Match the concept with the correct definition.
(Points : 6)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : scaffolding
2 : holophrases
3 : overregularize
4 : receptive language
5 : telegraphic speech
6 : expansion

 

    Answer
    [removed] : two-word sentences
    [removed] : raising the level of a child’s vocabulary
    [removed] : elaborating a child’s expressions
    [removed] : ability to understand words
    [removed] : single-word utterances
    [removed] : apply a grammatical rule inappropriately

 

Question 20.20.

Among the choices below, which is the most important factor that caregivers contribute for the cognitive growth of their toddler?

(Points : 2)

[removed] nutritious meals
[removed] opportunities for verbal interaction
[removed] providing for safety
[removed] enrollment in childcare

 

Question 21.21.

In which type of play do children coordinate their pretense by establishing a fantasy structure, taking roles, agreeing on the make-believe meaning of props, and solving pretend problems?

(Points : 2)

[removed] solitary play
[removed] social play
[removed] social pretend play
[removed] sensorimotor play

 

Question 22.22.

Which of the following describes the direction of fantasy play from the beginning of toddlerhood to the end?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The play becomes less planned and more associational (one action sparks the rest)
[removed] The play relies increasingly on real objects.
[removed] The play is based largely on the imitation of real world characters.
[removed] The play increasingly involves the creation of complex sequences of actions and roles.

 

Question 23.23.

According to Vygotsky’s concept of Zone of Proximal Development, children in pretend play ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] reveal the areas of competence they are striving to master
[removed] show the limits of their patience
[removed] play best with the children closest to them physically
[removed] often regress in preschool play

Question 24.24.

For a toddler, what is one of the consequences of having strong feelings of shame and doubt?

(Points : 2)

[removed] realistic expectations about performance
[removed] extreme sensitivity to the feelings of others
[removed] seeking out new information
[removed] avoiding new activities

 

Question 25.25.

Which of the following is the psychosocial crisis of toddlerhood?

(Points : 2)

[removed] imitation versus inferiority
[removed] initiative versus guilt
[removed] autonomy versus shame and doubt
[removed] peer group membership versus despair

 

Question 26.26. George is 2 ½ years old. He is with his mother in the grocery store and asks her to buy sugar coated sugar bumps (his favorite cereal). When his mother says no George begins to get upset. He stands in the middle of the aisle with his arms crossed. When his mother asks him to come with her he says “Not until you buy me my sugar bumps!” George’s mother is considering several options to get him to do what she wants. Match the different things she is considering to the different categories of discipline practices discussed in your text.
(Points : 3)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : power assertion
2 : inductions
3 : love withdrawal

 

    Answer
    [removed] : Tell George how disappointed and angry he is making her. If that doesn’t work turn and walk away from him. When he follows she doesn’t talk to him for a while so he can understand how upset he made her.
    [removed] : Explain to George that she understands why he’s angry but acting like this when you don’t get what you want isn’t fair to others. Point out to him that if he continues to stand there, the shopping won’t get done in time and dinner will be late for the whole family.
    [removed] : Threaten to take away George’s video games if he continues to stand there and not move. If that does not work pick him up and put him in the shopping cart.

 

Question 27.27.

Match the following terms and their definitions.
(Points : 4)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : gender
2 : sexual orientation
3 : sex
4 : gender-role standards

 

    Answer
    [removed] : cultural expectations about appropriate behavior for girls and boys, men and women
    [removed] : biologically based distinctions based on chromosomal information
    [removed] : one’s preference regarding the sex of an intimate partner
    [removed] : the integrated cognitive, social, and emotional schemes associated with being male or female

 

Question 28.28.

Which of the following is the earliest component of gender role identification to be achieved?

(Points : 2)

[removed] sex-role preference
[removed] correct use of gender labels
[removed] sex-role standards
[removed] understanding that gender is constant

 

Question 29.29.

For the early-school-age child, moral development involves a process of learning the family’s moral code and then using it to guide behavior. This is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] gender-role preference
[removed] avoidance conditioning
[removed] internalization
[removed] induction

 

Question 30.30.

Joelle, a 6-year old, really wants to eat a cookie out of the cookie jar. However she remembers how mad her mother got at her when she ate a cookie right before dinner last week and she starts to feel anxiety. In the end, Joelle decides not to eat the cookie and this reduces her anxiety. This is an example of ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] operant conditioning
[removed] reward conditioning
[removed] avoidance conditioning
[removed] anxiety conditioning

 

Question 31.31.

Every day Johnny watches Tally get in trouble when she rides her bike further than their mother allows them to go. Johnny really wants to go around the corner when riding his bike but he knows his mother will be angry and that he will get in trouble, so he stops at the corner and turns back towards their house on his bike. This is an example of ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] observation of models
[removed] cognitive schemes
[removed] help giving behaviors
[removed] punishment

 

Question 32.32.

According to cognitive developmental theory, advances in moral reasoning occur when a child has to reconcile new views about basic moral concepts with existing views about what is right or wrong. This process is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] social convention
[removed] empathy
[removed] conventional morality
[removed] equilibration

 

Question 33.33.

Perspective taking differs from empathy in which way?

(Points : 2)

[removed] They are both social skills.
[removed] Perspective taking does not occur at the early-school-age period.
[removed] Perspective taking involves recognizing differences in point of view rather than similarities.
[removed] Perspective taking increases a child’s egocentrism.

 

Question 34.34.

People who have high self-esteem tend to ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] have strong positive evaluations of all of their abilities
[removed] find that failure increases their feelings of doubt about their basic worth
[removed] use a variety of strategies to minimize the importance of negative feedback
[removed] derive this sense of self-worth primarily through pretend activities

 

Question 35.35.

Group games during early school age often permit children to shift roles. This contributes to which of the following?

(Points : 2)

[removed] perspective-taking abilities
[removed] fantasy
[removed] emotional regulation
[removed] self-esteem

 

Question 36.36.

Which of the following is true about the groups girls and boys prefer during early school age?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Girls prefer two-person groups, while boys prefer larger groups.
[removed] Boys prefer two-person groups, while girls prefer larger groups.
[removed] Girls prefer mixed-sex groups while boys prefer same-sex groups.
[removed] Boys prefer mixed-sex groups while girls prefer same-sex groups.

 

Question 37.37.

Children who suffer extreme feelings of guilt are likely to believe that ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] their thoughts cause the misfortunes of others
[removed] they can be forgiven for their mistakes
[removed] the good things that happen to them are a result of their efforts
[removed] they are a lot like other friends

 

Question 38.38.

How is attachment formation in infancy related to friendship formation?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Children who are securely attached do not need friends.
[removed] Children who are anxiously attached make friends readily.
[removed] Children who are securely attached are more popular and more comfortable in social interactions.
[removed] Children who are securely attached look for one best friend with whom to share their feelings.

 

Question 39.39.

Some children who are rejected tend to be disruptive and aggressive; others tend to be socially withdrawn. Which of the following statements is more characteristic of the aggressive/disruptive children than the socially withdrawn group?

(Points : 2)

[removed] They tend to experience difficulty dealing with stress.
[removed] They tend to display inappropriate affect and unusual behavioral mannerisms.
[removed] They are more likely to benefit from organized sports programs.
[removed] They are more likely to attribute hostile intentions to others.

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