What are the main characteristics of the African beer market?

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What are the main characteristics of the African beer market?

Study Guide for Exam #2

The test will consist of about 40 multiple choice and true/false questions. Please bring #2 pencils, erasers, and a calculator.

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For every topic, you should be familiar with all the contents of the PowerPoint handout and the relevant class discussion-based notes. When you review the material for the exam, for each topic first review the PowerPoint handout and class notes (including examples discussed in class), followed by the readings/examples for that topic. There will be questions from the readings and examples from the pdf files. One efficient way to review the readings in the pdf files is to answer the questions in the study guide as you go through each reading.

Marketing in Emerging Markets

  1. PowerPoint handout and class notes (everything is relevant)

 

  1. “Is the Bottom of the Pyramid Really for You?” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. The issues you need to focus on are given in the PowerPoint handout and class notes.
      1. Lack of demand for certain products
      2. Uncertain, limited cashflow
      3. Hard to reach
    2. You should be familiar with the illustrative examples given in this article.

 

  1. “The CEO of Heinz on Powering Growth in Emerging Markets” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. According to the CEO of Heinz, what are the four “A’s” of Heinz’s emerging market strategies?
      1. Applicability
      2. Availability
      3. Affordability
      4. Affinity
    2. In general, what was Heinz’s strategy for entering emerging markets?
      1. “Buy and Build”
    3. What are the similarities/differences between Heinz’s evaluations of emerging markets and developed economies?
      1. Similarity: risks
      2. Differences: political climate, currency trends, tax system, regulatory environment
  2. “Cost-cutting in Asia: A Snip at the Price”
    1. What is the key theme of the article?
    2. Why are Hollywood studios keen to do deals with Indian filmmakers?

 

  1. “Reverse Innovation 2.0”
    1. What is reverse innovation?
      1. the strategy of innovating in emerging (or developing) markets and then distributing/marketing these innovations in developed markets. Many companies are developing products in emerging countries like China and India and then distributing them globally.
    2. Why are multinationals doing reverse innovation?
      1. So that they can meet the requirements of developing countries, and then market/sell globally.

 

  1. “Africa’s growing thirst a draw for global brewers”
    1. What are the main characteristics of the African beer market?
      1. They are underserved and overcharged; African gov’t trying to make it difficult to do business; high risk
    2. What are the key elements of SABMiller’s strategy to target consumers at the bottom of the pyramid?
      1. Half the price of beer, premium beer in every local market, engage in joint ventures

 

  1. “Consumer Goods in Africa”
    1. What are the key challenges that multinationals such as Unilever and Nestlé face in marketing to the middle class in Africa?
    2. What are the key elements of Unilever’s strategy in Africa?
      1. Offer cheaper cosmetic products tailored to African customers for hair/skin; opened a salon to test its products and may expand if it succeeds

 

  1. “Avon in South Africa”
    1. How is Avon performing in South Africa versus globally?
      1. Extremely well. Sales grew 29% in 2009 in Africa compared to 1% globally
    2. What changes did Avon need to make in its strategy to succeed in South Africa?
      1. They needed to ship to post offices since there are roads with no names and houses with no numbers. The also set up payments through post offices of large retailers.

 

  1. “Schumpeter: Emerging Market Companies are Trying to Build Global Brands”
    1. What is the main incentive for emerging market companies to build brands?
    2. What do emerging market companies need to do in order to become global brands?

Financial Environment

  1. PowerPoint handout and class notes (everything is relevant)

 

  1. “Foreign Exchange Markets and Transactions” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. You are responsible for all the material (including calculations) in the first 14 pages.

 

  1. “The Classroom Economist: Fractional Reserve Banking”
    1. What key societal need or problem is solved by the existence of a well-developed banking system?
    2. What is direct finance?
    3. What allows banks and other financial intermediaries to exist side by side with direct finance?
    4. What are “reserves”?
    5. How does fractional reserve banking generate “money”?
    6. How does the Federal Reserve manipulate money supply?

 

  1. “Monopoly Power over Money”
    1. This article was discussed in class. Please review this along with your class notes.

 

  1. “Facts Behind the Figures: A Quick Guide to the Balance of Payments”
    1. This article was discussed in class. Please review this along with your class notes.

 

  1. “When Currencies Collapse: Two Tales from Thailand”
    1. How do currency devaluations affect firms?
    2. What factors explain the contrasting fortunes of Delta Electronics and Thai Petrochemical Industries?

 

  1. “Currency Pegs: Poor Dollar Standard”
    1. What are the pros and cons of pegging a currency to a reserve currency such as the U.S. dollar or the euro?

 

  1. “U.S. Retailers Target-ing Avid Canadian Shoppers”
    1. Why are Canadian shoppers near the U.S. border shopping in stores in the U.S.?
    2. According to the Canadian media why do Canadians generally pay more for retail items, compared to what Americans pay in the U.S.?

 

  1. “Aeon Says Yen’s Climb Provides Growth Opportunity That’s too Great to Miss”
    1. What changes in Japan’s financial environment explain Aeon’s change in its foreign expansion strategy?

 

  1. “Hong Kong’s Savers Losing Purchasing Power”
    1. How does the Hong Kong Monetary Authority manage exchange rates?
    2. What are the pros and cons of having a currency board?
    3. How does this impact Hong Kong’s economy?
    4. How is it affecting savers and retailers in Hong Kong?

 

  1. “QE, or not QE?” (need to read only highlighted sections)
    1. What are some of the tools used by central banks to implement unconventional monetary policy?
    2. What is QE?
    3. What is the objective underlying QE?
    4. How are the open market operations conducted as part of QE different from those conducted in “normal” times?
    5. What is “Operation Twist”?
    6. How does QE affect the real economy?
    7. What are the potential negative consequences of QE?

 

  1. “China’s economy: In three parts”
    1. What is the likely economic impact of China’s (“peak toil”) demographic turning point?
    2. What are the three forms of growth that are focused on in the article?
    3. What is the main “excess” (imbalance) in China’s economic/financial environment?
    4. What are the three ways in which credit growth can affect the economic/financial environment? What are their differential impacts?

Legal and Political Environment

  1. PowerPoint handout and class notes (everything is relevant)

 

  1. “Managing Risk in an Unstable World” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. The issues you need to focus on are given in the PowerPoint handout and class notes.

 

  1. “Cracking the Next Growth Market: Africa” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. The issues you need to focus on are given in the PowerPoint handout and class notes.

 

  1. “Vodafone Considers $2.2 Billion India Provision After Law Change”
    1. Why was Vodafone considering a $2.2 billion provision in India?
      1. Because they are being billed for radio frequency charges that they do not believe they have to pay
      2. Vodafone is a wireless network in India, like Verizon

 

  1. “Energy in Argentina: Sparks in the Dark”
    1. What factors in the economic and political environment led to the nationalization of Repsol’s Argentine business?
      1. Argentina has an energy problem and president uses Repsol’s oil and gas company
      2. Economic: low tariffs, low investments
      3. Political: High usage of electricity

 

  1. “Adidas Withdraws ‘Sexual’ T-Shirts Following Brazil’s Complaint”
    1. Why did the Brazilian government complain about the T-shirts sold by Adidas?
      1. The t-shirt had a woman in a bikini and said “looking to score” on top of the word Brazil and the government thought it was sexualizing their company

 

  1. “Chinese Multinationals: Who’s Afraid of Huawei?”
    1. How does the political environment affect Huawei’s ability to do business in different parts of the world?
      1. Westerners see Huawei as being too close to People Liberation Army (PLA) and they see it as a threat in the cyber world

 

    1. How are the political concerns raised by Huawei’s Chinese origins handled in Britain?
      1. Britain has a system where they can check the telecom for any bad things before it is installed

 

  1. “Huawei Technologies to ‘Voluntarily’ Restrict Business Dealings in Iran”
    1. Why did Huawei Technologies decide to restrict its business activities in Iran?
      1. Increasingly complex situation

 

  1. “China’s murky ownership rules: Who Owns What?”
    1. What is the purpose of the investment vehicle VIE?
      1. Chinese industries are capital hungry and politically sensitive, so they use VIEs in order to get foreign investments because the countries laws bans foreigners owning stakes in the companies
    2. What are the potential risks to firms using a VIE?
      1. Chinese gov potentially shutting them down for breaking policies

 

  1. “Why it’s Time to Kill the Sugar Tariff”
    1. What were the reasons behind the imposition of tariffs on imports of sugar and ethanol?
      1. Non US sugar has been flooding the market and keeping prices down

 

    1. What were the consequences of imposing these tariffs?
      1. Discouraging cheap sugar and fuel coming from other countries

 

  1. “Safety Concerns Threaten the Market for Caffeinated Food and Drink”
    1. How do certain rules and regulations differentially affect various marketers of caffeinated drinks? Who are the beneficiaries of these rules?
      1. The amount of caffeine in a Monster vs. coffee, coffee has more, but monster is being threatened by FDA for the caffeine content and starbucks is not
      2. The natural ways are getting the benefits

 

Social and Cultural Environment

  1. PowerPoint handout and class notes (everything is relevant)

 

  1. “National Culture and Management” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. The issues you need to focus on are given in the PowerPoint handout and class notes.

 

  1. “The Crescent and the Company”
    1. According to this article, what were the reasons why the Middle East’s economic performance lagged Europe’s since the eleventh century?

 

  1. “Don’t Look Down: The Poor Like Taxing the Rich Less than You Would Think”
    1. How do attitudes towards taxes and redistribution differ between America and other rich countries?
    2. What factors underlie these differences in attitudes? How are these attitudes affected by the presence of a large immigrant population?
    3. What factors explain within-country differences in attitudes towards taxes and redistribution?
    4. What factors explain poorer Americans’ attitudes toward taxing the rich? Why is it paradoxical? What is “last-place aversion?”

 

  1. “Consumer Goods: The Mystery of the Chinese Consumer”
    1. What factors explain Nestle’s interest in Hsu Fu Chi?
    2. What kind of market segmentation did consumer products multinationals do when they first entered China?
    3. How does the Chinese government view foreign multinationals?
    4. What cultural differences do Western multinationals need to take into account in order to successfully market consumer products in China?
    5. Focus on the specific examples of successes and failures.

 

  1. “Three Ways to Connect With China’s Profit Pathway”
    1. What is guanxi?
    2. What do foreign companies need to do to cultivate it?

 

  1. “The Winter Olympics: Hot or Cool?
    1. How has the Winter Olympics changed over time?
    2. What factors account for these changes?

 

Transfer Pricing

  1. PowerPoint handout and class notes (everything is relevant)

 

  1. “Case of the Tangled Transfer Price” (HBSP Coursepack)
    1. Discussed in class using a simplified scenario.

 

  1. “Corporate Profit-Shifting Has Become Big Business”
    1. This article was discussed in class. Please review this along with your class notes

What are the main characteristics of the African beer market?

What are the main characteristics of the African beer market?

What are the main characteristics of the African beer market?

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