University of North Texas Formation of Mountains Blog Writing Task

University of North Texas Formation of Mountains Blog Writing Task

University of North Texas Formation of Mountains Blog Writing Task

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Write one blog post on a current event that deals with one of the learning objectives of the module for this week. The information for the blog can be from newspapers, magazines, research papers, etc. In addition to writing one blog post, you will also read and comment on one of your peers’ blogs.

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A Quick (sort of) Guide to Basins

Basins are low areas, or depressions in the earth, where sediment accumulates. They can more easily be thought of as circular or ovular bowls, since their sides are higher than the bottom. Something interesting about basins is that they can form almost overnight, or over thousands of years, depending on the type. The way they form can also be quite unpredictable, as they can be created by forces above the ground (such as erosion) or forces below the ground (such as earthquakes). There are lots of different types of basins, but the three major ones are structural basins, ocean basins, and drainage basins. There is a lot to be learned about these three main types, but I will try to be as brief as possible for the sake of not going overboard.

Drainage basins are areas from which all precipitation flows to a single stream or set of streams. Watersheds are small versions of these basins. Every river is part of a network of watersheds that make up a river system’s entire drainage basin. All of the water in a drainage basin flows downhill towards bigger rivers.

Structural basins, usually found in dry regions, form as tectonic plates shift. You can tell that a basin is a structural type if it is shaped like a bowl, because they are usually shaped like a series of smaller bowls that are stacked inside each other. There are several “sub-types” of structural basins, including endorheic basins, lake basins, and sedimentary basins.

Ocean basins are the largest depressions on Earth, and the sides of these basins are formed by the edges of continents (also known as continental shelves). These basins are constantly being changed by tectonic activity, especially subduction and seafloor spreading. Although ocean basins make up over 70% of the land on Earth, we know relatively little about them. Some specialists say that we know more about the surface of the moon than we do about the surface of the ocean floor, which is probably a statement that many people have heard and believe due to the difficulty of traversing the oceanic depths.

Here is only a fraction of the Amazon Basin, the largest drainage basin in the world, located in South America. This looks like an ideal layout for a lazy river!

 

Explanation & Answer length: 300 Words

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Chapter 11 Mountains, Basins, and Continents ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Observe this region around the Tibetan Plateau in southern Asia Exaggerated topographic profile of region 11.00.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Controls on Regional Elevation Regions with thick crust are high Regions underlain by less dense crust are high Warm rocks are less dense, so warm regions are higher than cool ones 11.01.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Ways to Decrease Regional Elevation Structurally thin crust Erode material Cool crust or mantle 11.01.c ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Ways to Increase Regional Elevation Shorten / thicken crust Add surface material Add magma at depth Heat crust or mantle 11.01.d ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Tectonic Setting of Regional Mtn. Belts Subduction zone Continental collision Mantle upwelling 11.02.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe the location of regions that have high elevations, and think about why they are high 11.02.b1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe what happens as mountain belts erode Early mountain building Erosion and isostatic rebound Erosion and uplift bring deep rocks to surface 11.02.c ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Think about what might control the elevation of across North America Close-up views ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 11.02.d1 How Faulting Can Form Mountains Thrust Faulting Front Range Normal Faulting Basin near Death Valley 11.03.b ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. How Folding Can Form Mountains Active Folding Erosion of previously folded rock layers 11.03.c ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. How Differential Erosion Forms Mountains 11.03.d ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe some settings where basins form Passive margin Foreland basin Continental rift Strike-slip faulting Normal faulting Regional subsidence 11.04.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Major Basins in the Lower 48 States 11.04.b1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. The Michigan Basin 11.04.t ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe processes that form basins and mountains at convergent boundaries 11.05.a,c ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Extension on Non-Rotating Fault Blocks Normal faults dip in opposite directions Movement along faults forms basins and mountains Over time, basins fill and mountains erode 11.06.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Extension on Rotating Fault Blocks Normal faults all dip in the same direction Continued faulting tilts units more, extending crust 11.06.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Corner that is rotated up becomes a mountain When Extension Accompanies Subduction 11.06.b1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Features of Continental Hot Spots Afar Region, East Africa Region around Yellowstone National Park 11.07.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe how continental hot spots evolve Solid mass rises from lower mantle and melts Seafloor spreading continues (out of view) ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 11.07.b Continental Interiors Cross section across Ohio 11.08.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Processes that Affect Continental Interiors 11.08.b1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Characteristics of Tectonic Terranes 11.09.a1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe common settings for the origin of terranes Must be added (accreted) via subduction, collision, or strike-slip faulting 11.09.a2 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Tectonic Terranes of Alaska Gray areas: stable North America Blue areas: parts of North America sliced off and transported Purple and green: slices of oceanic crust and accretionary prisms Pink and red: island arcs or magmatic belts Yellow areas: more recent rocks and sediment that overlap terranes ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 11.09.t1 Observe this geologic map of North America, noting the distribution of rock ages Precambrian: dark brown and red Paleozoic: purple and blue Mesozoic: green Cenozoic: yellow and tan 11.10.a1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe this geologic map of the world, noting the distribution of rock ages 11.10.b1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Observe the type of terranes in California and Nevada 11.10.t1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 600 m.y. Ago: Supercontinent of Rodinia For the next several slides, observe where the continents were in the past and predict where they will go next as we work toward the present. Continents joined in Rodinia, centered over South Pole This view is centered on South Pole ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 11.11.a1 500 m.y Ago: Dispersal of Continents 11.11.a2 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 370 m.y. Ago: Before Pangaea ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 11.11.a3 280 m.y. Ago: Supercontinent of Pangaea 11.11.a4 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 150 m.y. Ago: Gondwana and Laurasia 11.11.a5 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Present Modern configuration of continents is one snapshot in a stillrunning “movie” ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. 11.11.a6 Geologic History of the Appalachian and Ouachita Mountains 11.12.a1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Paleozoic Evolution of Eastern N. America 11.12.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Paleozoic Evolution of Eastern N. America II 11.12.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Geologic Evolution of the Western U.S. Precambrian rifting Early Paleozoic passive margin 11.13.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Middle Paleozoic offshore arcs Late Paleozoic collisions Setting at end of the Paleozoic (250 Ma) 11.13.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Early to late Mesozoic convergent margin (white line = sections) 11.13.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic Laramide Orogeny Middle and Late Cenozoic Crustal Extension 11.13.a ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Investigation: Where will mountains and basins form in this region? 11.14.a1 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education. Use this perspective and section to show the main features likely to be present in the future 11.14.a2 ©2019 McGraw-Hill Education.
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