The Medical Models Of Disability Essay
The models of disability are designed as a mechanism through which diverse of issues related to disability can be analysed, identified and proffered solutions to. These Models unravel the ways and manner in which our society makes provision or restrict access to good, services work, political and economic power for the people associated with disabilities.
Although different models postulate different views which of course pose with some challenges on how impairment is defined for providing basis on how government and society can formulate strategy on how to meet the needs of the disabled people. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay.This essay will be focusing on the medical and social model of disability, how they impacts on service users and service in the health and care sectors.
Kate et al said that a definition play a powerful role both in the construction of disable people and how they are perceived by the wider society and who are so called the professionals, the model of disability helps us to understand the context in which disability is viewed by different groups and individual in the society.
Share and Lola also stressed that defining what is meant when we speak of disability can be challenging, as the word disability suggest a person in wheelchair or a person with a guide dog or a child with down syndrome, the society consider that disability is operated on a variety and therefore, anybody who experience difficulties could be considered as a disable, even more often do we consider how people are labelled as disable or handicapped.
The National Disability Authority has noted how disability is defined and understood has suggestion for how people with disability is been treated, the extent and the nature of service provided and the type legislation and policy that includes a disability centre. Also Oliver (1983) argued that disability is a relationship between people with impairments and the restrictions impose upon them by the society.
Also Finekstein (1981) argued that ‘society disable people with different physical impairments’ the cause of disability is the social relationships that take little or no account of people who have physical impairments, Thomas (2004) describes Finekstein’s understanding of disability as distinct due to it social relational characters, making it a new form of social oppression associated with the relationship, at both macro and micro social scales, between the impaired and non impaired. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay.
Thompson (2006) said that Discrimination is not necessarily a negative term because it is simply good or bad. Although the word discrimination is mostly used in relation to unfair treatment, especially when difference identification process and application of treatment based on established treatment make someone or group to suffer a detriment as a result of their gender, race, ethnicity, sexual identity, religion and so on. Some people or group receives degrading treatment because they have been identified as different and this inhuman treatment graduates to oppression.
Due to the fact that anyone can discriminate against anyone else, we can then accept that discrimination is not only a sociological concept but also political and psychological phenomenon. Discrimination and oppression are often found when considering people with learning disability.
Also, Kate et al explained that labelling are often attached to disable people; the word disable person is a label in itself, constructing specific images in mind of the person who is labelling and the person being labelled, the past association said that the term handicapped is being ‘cap in hand and begging. The labelling theory stated that by referring to an individual by means of a specific word or term “handicapped “their identity is constructed and their place in the world is defined by the label.
Goffman (1961) also looked at labelling in terms of how and why people were defined by others and discover the effect of the labelling process on people‘s subsequent behaviour, he suggested that labelling really creates deviance abnormality because the individual amend their behaviour to that of the label Becker (1964) and Lemert (1967) also consider deviancy theory in the broader content of person on group that deviated from normal society’s responses to people with disability. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay.
Many of the label that described people who have a learning disability have derived from medical definition, the impact of being classed as disable is another label that can affect people with disability, disabled considers the impact of functional disability by focusing on the combination of social focus, cultural values and personal prejudice that marginalizes disable people and portrays them in a negative light and oppresses them.
Also Thompson (2006) emphasized that, we hold that disability is caused by isolated social arrangements which deny equality of opportunity for the impaired people to participate in mainstream social conduct. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay. In Ryan’s (1971) notion give an example of blaming the victim that is the wider social and political dimensions are ignored and the forces remains on a narrow individual level, prejudice against disable people is relatively manifests and commonplace itself in a manner of revulsion, dismissive and illogically and also in a misplaced charitable concern in which human right and dignity are exchange for support and good manners.
The culture reflect on different response to disability and which are mainly negative in their direction, norms are geared towards the disable people also popular notion present disable people as either misfit or weak victims of personal tragedy and are subject to abusive and offensive treatment.
Taylor (1977) suggested that the individual medical model approach is entirely justified in that the major causes of impairments are diseases of various kinds, most impairment are caused by disease, doctor cure diseases and where the disease cannot be cure. Medical model control symptom, therefore, doctors have an important role to play. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay. Brechin (2000) also said that service users have not only focus on the services delivered but, also challenged the relevance and suitability of the knowledge based upon which the professionals traditionally draw.
The medical model have a very precise focus on individual impairment or illness and the treatments and causes of conditions at the level of individual and the disease, but they do not explain the impact of social and economic factors on people with disease nor does a medical perspective address the reactions of other people to disability or and the resolution and the illness of barriers in the social and physical world. For disable people, the medical is not enough because it leaves them in the role of tragic individual with no model of how to achieve change.
The social model was developed by disable academics and activities the social model of disability look beyond the causes of an individual’s impairment to the causes of their exclusion from and disadvantages in social and civil right, housing, employment, in this model, disable people discriminate between impairment and extent to which it is allowed by society to disadvantage them. Social model is mirrored in the movement of the people using health services and people with disabilities who have developed their understanding.
In share and Lalor, (2009) who said that the social model of disability define disability as the barriers that are created by how society, government and health agencies response to impairments experienced by a person, this model requires a political response since the problem is based in society and how people response to those with disability. In the late 80s, An American activates and writer on disability issues John O’Brien who developed an alternative model of service delivery that embodies the principle of moving from a traditional model to social model of disability, O Brien emphasis on the service rather than containing individual, act as a facilitator to ensure that people are linked to and can participate within their own communities. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay.
This model helps person’s network of friends and family, the primary role of the service become one of support and safeguarding the individual within their own social network and creating and developing new opportunities in the person’s own community because the community is seen as a resource and where the person’s can be connected with the support of the service.
Share & Lalor stressed that O’Brien (1989) propose that all services for people with disability should be designed on the basic of his five value experience and describe the five value experience, and consider all people seek out relationship, choice, contributing, sharing ordinary places and dignity. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay. When services operate in a way that ensure that service users experience these, they achieved what the O’Brien refer to as the five services accomplishments: promoting choice, supporting contribution, community presence, community participation and encouraging valued social role, those five valued experience resonate for all people as the feature of a fulfilled life.
Furthermore, Thomas & wood (2003) said that the impact of social policy can be measured against the notion of quality which culturally, structurally and bureaucratically is defined, the impact that medical and social model of disability have on how people are perceived by society has an influence over policy making, disability pressure groups have been formed and highlighted the need for social model inclusion in policy development.
The budget restrictions prevalent in services for people with learning disability need to be challenged and support are to be achieved (Priestley 1999). according to Thompson (2000) said that there are four main level at which legislation can be interpreted, statutory guidance, local policies, precedent direct practice, each legislation ac influence the care that is provided for people with learning disability, statutory guidance is issued by governments and direct how particular pieces of legislation are to implemented. This informs how services are to be structured and provided. Local polices are developed by the local authorities or other agencies providing social care support. These police are devised by the individual agencies’ to provide explanations and guidance.
Oliver et al, (2012) stressed that social worker occupy a unique position in the welfare system in which directly or indirectly employed by the state to implement it welfare policies as they are the face of the state. They are not only have to represent the welfare services but often the only people with whom service users have direct contact and therefore play a key role in feeding back their needs.
Apparently, under the medical model the perception is that disabled people are those associated with sick role as it were, they are tend to be excused from the normal obligations of society; like taking proper family responsibilities, pursuing educational career, seeking job opportunities and so on. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay. Often times, they are also expected to be receiving treatment, therapy or being monitored by medical authority over a long period of time. This explains why disability matters are treated as health issues and in recent times several cases has been referred to the medical authority.
Also, the impact of the social security system on medical model of disability today in the area of public policy cannot be overemphasised, this model tend to view disability as the inability to work in relationship with the social security system and this further brings to light that any person with disability is seeing to play a sick role in the society. This idea could be counterproductive considering the fact that some people with one disability case or the other who genuinely might desire to work who stand the risk of forfeiting all accrue public related benefits like medical card, assistance, allowance because when they lose their disability status they lose virtually all the benefits.
Unlike the medical model, disability is caused by the society we live under the social model, it is viewed as the unavoidable consequence of the failures of the society or environment which could be as a result of organizational or attitudinal limitation impose in any giving society which ultimately facilitate the birth of discrimination as a resultant product. By and large if discrimination is practically removed it will ushers in a new ways of restructuring the society towards a better approach and perception.
The social model recognises the fact that the people with disability are fully part of the macro environment, economics and political culture within the society. So whatever limitation that is preventing people from contributing their quotas to that society should be identified as the problem and not the person in question. These limitation are still evident in many sectors of the society today be it in the area of transportation, information dissemination, social support services, health, media both print and broadcasting all these further act as barrier. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay.
The basic aim of the social model is to removing barriers so that disabled people can be allowed to have a serene system of equal opportunity whereby people can be able to choose how they want their destinies to be shaped and determined, take for instance a disabled wheelchair users who can access certain facilities in a public place where full access and provision are in place to facilitate easy mobility and comfort for disable people will not feel disabled in the mist of other who are not challenged in any form or shape.
This model to a large extent has affected the way disability policy is treated and has also impacted fundamentally anti discriminatory regulations as far as legislation is concern, although many scholars hold the view that the present world we live is more critical and complicated so therefore the society need to be offered something that transcend what this model provides. The Medical Models Of Disability Essay.