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Tools used in the collection and analysis of quantitative data need to undergo a document review, observation, questionnaires, and interviews. These tools should have certain features to provide valid quantitative research. While there are individual characteristics for every tool that is used, some general features that enhance the validity of the data are as follow. Firstly, the data collected from different respondents should display uniformity. For instance, the questions provided should be the same for all respondents to assist in comparing information, especially during analysis (De Leeuw, 2008). This characteristic helps in reinforcing the validity of the information.
This characteristic applies to interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. The second feature should the tools used and the need for them to be objective and free from bias. In this case, they should be guided by the hypothesis to ascertain that the researcher is adhering to the required scope of the study. This feature applies to observation, questionnaires, and interviews among others. Thirdly, the criteria used to obtain the answers should be simple and direct to avoid erroneous or misinterpreted answers. The questions used in the questionnaire, survey, and interviews should be direct and clear for respondents to provide clear answers (Alshenqeeti, 2014). The type of questions and how they are structured as well as the tools used in the administration influences the validity of the responses.
Lastly, the method used should be easy to understand for the respondent to take a reasonable amount of time comprehending the tool as opposed to a large amount (Gill, Stewart, Treasure, & Chadwick, 2008). Some tools such as the survey may be conducted without the presence of a researcher. Therefore, four major features of research tools influence the validity of the data. These are uniformity, objectivity, and free from bias, simple and direct criteria in obtaining answers, as well as self-explanatory. These features play an important role in the reliability and validity of the information.
Alshenqeeti, H. (2014). Interviewing as a data collection method: A critical review. English Linguistics Research, 3(1), 39-45.
De Leeuw, E. D. (2008). Choosing the method of data collection.
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E., & Chadwick, B. (2008). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: Interviews and focus groups. British Dental Journal, 204(6), 291-295.