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This assignment is a take-home essay assignment of 2 questions, 2-3 pages each, to test knowledge and assimilation of the course objectives. The exclusive use of required texts and readings from this course is mandatory. (1) By now you’ve digested much about the history of interactions between MENA states and Western actors like the US outlined in Jones (2007), Little (2010), Kamrava (2011), and other readings. Using these and other assigned sources, present an argument about what the role of the US should be for MENA states experiencing political or social upheavals, or ongoing Arab Spring movements. You could consider the answer from a number of points of view: that view of the US, the view of MENA leaders, and the view of MENA citizens (or all of the above). References Little, Douglas. 2004. Mission impossible: The CIA and the cult of covert action in the Middle East. Diplomatic History 28: 663-701. Kamrava, Mehran. 2013. The Modern Middle East: A Political History since the First World War (3rd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. Accessed at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/apus/reader.action?ppg=89&docID=10763646&tm=1484010478186. Chapter 3 only, pages 68-93. (2) (a) Regarding the Middle East and North Africa, what new security concerns have arisen since 2011? (b) Have the Arab Spring movements discredited non-state actors such as terror groups, or enabled them? reference Al-Anani, Khalil. 2012. Islamist Parties Post-Arab Spring. Mediterranean Politics 17/3: 466-472. http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=82754377&site=ehost-live&scope=site.