marine organisms

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In typical marine organisms, the intracellular concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+ are 10 mM and 0.1 μM, respectively. Extracellular concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+ are 450 mM and 4 mM, respectively. Use Equation 9.4 to calculate the free energy changes at 20°C for the transmembrane movement of these ions. 1.What is the free energy changes at 20°C for the transmembrane movement of Na+? Assume the membrane potential is –70 mV. Express your answer in units of kJ mol-1 using 3 significant figures. 2.What is the free energy change at 20°C for the transmembrane movement of Ca2+? Assume the membrane potential is –70 mV. Express your answer in units of kJ mol-1 using 3 significant figures. 3. In which direction do the ions move?

 

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