International Police Executive Symposium Co-Publications

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GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY RESILIENCE

 

 

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International Police Executive Symposium Co-Publications

Dilip K. Das, Founding President – IPES

PUBLISHED

Global Perspectives on Crime Prevention and Community Resilience Edited by Diana Scharff Peterson and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4987-4897-1

Global Issues in Contemporary Policing Edited by John A. Eterno, Arvind Verma, Aiedeo Mintie Das, and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4822-4852-4

Change and Reform in Law Enforcement Edited by Scott W. Phillips and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4987-4168-2

Economic Development, Crime, and Policing: Global Perspectives Edited by David Lowe, Austin T. Turk, and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-482-20456-8

Policing Major Events: Perspectives from Around the World Edited by James F. Albrecht, Martha Christine Dow, Darryl Plecas, and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-466-58805-9

Examining Political Violence: Studies of Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Internal War Edited by Frederic Lemieux, Garth den Heyer, Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-466-58820-2

The Evolution of Policing: Worldwide Innovations and Invites Edited by Melchor C. Guzman, Aiedeo Mintie Das, and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4665-6715-3

Policing Global Movement: Tourism, Migration, Human Trafficking, & Terrorism Edited by S. Caroline Taylor, Daniel Joseph Torpy, and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-466-50726-5

Global Community Policing: Problems and Challenges Edited by Arvind Verma, Dilip K. Das, and Manoj Abraham, ISBN: 978-1-439-88416-4

Global Environment of Policing Edited by Dilip K. Das, Darren Palmer, Clifford D. Shearing and Anthony L. Sciarabba, ISBN: 978-1-4200-6590-9

Strategies and Responses to Crime: Thinking Locally, Acting Globally Edited by Dilip K. Das, Mintie Das, and Larry French, ISBN: 978-1-4200-7669-1

Effective Crime Reduction Strategies: International Perspectives Edited by James F. Albrecht and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4200-7838-1

Police Without Borders: The Fading Distinction between Local and Global Edited by Cliff Roberson and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4398-0501-5

Urbanization, Policing, and Security: Global Perspectives Edited by Gary Cordner, Dilip K. Das, and AnnMarie Cordner, ISBN: 978-1-4200-8557-0

Criminal Abuse of Women and Children: An International Perspective Edited by Obi N. I. Ebbe and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4200-8803-8

Contemporary Issues in Law Enforcement and Policing Edited by Andrew Millie, PhD and Dilip K. Das, ISBN: 978-1-4200-7215-0

 

 

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY RESILIENCE

Edited by

Diana Scharff Peterson Dilip K. Das

International Police Executive Symposium Co-Publications

 

 

First published 2018 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017

and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© 2018 Taylor & Francis

The right of Diana Scharff Peterson and Dilip K. Das to be identified as the authors of the editorial matter, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Names: Scharff Peterson, Diana, editor. | Das, Dilip K., 1941– editor. Title: Global perspectives on crime prevention and community resilience / edited by Diana Scharff Peterson and Dilip K. Das. Description: 1 Edition. | New York : Routledge, 2018. | Series: International police executive symposium co-publications | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017023110| ISBN 9781498748971 (hardback) | ISBN 9781315368481 (ebk) Subjects: LCSH: Crime prevention. | Communities. Classification: LCC HV7431 .G444 2018 | DDC 364.4–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017023110

ISBN: 978-1-4987-4897-1 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-36848-1 (ebk)

Typeset in Minion Pro by Wearset Ltd, Boldon, Tyne and Wear

 

 

This book is dedicated to Ana Das – we love you. Your perseverance and strength fol- lowing our Sofia meeting has inspired all of us. Jimmy Albrecht – this large effort is also dedicated to you, so that you will continue to build a better world and come back to perfect health, as the world needs you. Sedat Mülayim – now you are truly a guiding light in heaven and beyond – you are greatly loved and missed. We are certain that you are now one of the brightest stars in the nighttime sky, and gratefully dedicate this book to you.

 

 

 

Contents

Foreword xi International Police Executive Symposium Co- Publication Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix Editors xxi Contributors xxiii

Introduction: Executive Summary of Crime Prevention and Community Resilience – Police Role with Victims, Youth, Ethnic Minorities and Other Partners xxxi LIn Huff- CorzInE

Section I GLOBAL STRATEGIES FOR CRIME AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION

1 Coordinated Community Response to Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault on the College Campus 3 roBErT HAnSEr

2 Different Communities, Different Approaches: Avoiding a ‘One Size Fits All’ Approach to Neighbourhood Policing Strategies 19 MIKE PErKInS

3 Community- Based Participatory Approach to Prevent Residential Burglaries and House Robberies 35 DorAVAL GoVEnDEr

4 Crossing the Great Divide: The Development and Effectiveness of Working Relationships between Law Enforcement Personnel and Academic Researchers 51 LIn Huff- CorzInE AnD JAY CorzInE

 

 

viii Contents

5 The B3W Matrix: Managing a More Effective Way to Tackle Residential Burglary 71 PETEr VErSTEEGH AnD rEné HESSELInG

Section II BUILDING RESILIENCE AND ENGAGING COMMUNITIES FOR VIOLENCE AND CRIME PREVENTION

6 Managing Language Barriers in Policing 87 SEDAT MüLAYIM AnD MIrAnDA LAI

7 Community Policing and Vigilantism: Two Alternative Strategies for Fighting Neighborhood Crime 103 Bruno MEInI

8 Policing in Remote Australia: Is it Possible to Ignore Colonial Borderlines? 119 JuDY PuTT AnD rICK SArrE

9 Multi- Sector Co- Operation in Preventing Crime: The Case of a South African Neighbourhood Watch as an Effective Crime Prevention Model 133 JoHAn VAn GrAAn

Section III ASSISTING SPECIAL POPULATIONS, WOMEN, AND CRIME VICTIMS

10 Human Trafficking: A Global Examination of Sexual Exploitation, Corruption, and Future Implications 151 TIffInEY BArfIELD- CoTTLEDGE, CYnTHIA HErnAnDEz,

JoSE CErVAnTES, ATTAPoL KuAnLIAnG, AnD oCTAVIA S. BoLTon

11 Building Community Resilience: Strategic Role of Police with Bombing Victims 161 zorA SuKABDI

12 Women in Law Enforcement: Reality or Myth? 177 CHrISTIAAn BEzuIDEnHouT

 

 

Contents ix

13 Strategies in Prevention of Crime against Women in India – with Special Reference to Telangana State 199 ADKI SurEnDEr

14 The Assessment of Capable Guardianship Measures Against Bullying Victimization in the School Environment 215 KYunG- SHICK CHoI, SHEA CronIn, AnD HEATHEr CorrEIA

Section IV PROMOTING BEST PRACTICES FOR POLICE OFFICER SAFETY, ACCOUNTABILITY, EFFECTIVENESS, PROFESSIONALISM, AND RETENTION

15 An Analysis of the Effects of On- Body Officer Camera Systems 231 HAroLD rAnKIn

16 Information Sharing in the Investigative Units of Local Law Enforcement Agencies: Which Units Share Information and Why? 245 BLAKE M. rAnDoL

17 Retention Factors in Relation to Organizational Commitment: Empirical Evidence from the Ghana Police Service 265 GErALD DAPAAH GYAMfI AnD JoSHuA oforI ESSIAM

18 Safety Management and Performance- Based Management – an Excellent Match 283 PAuL VAn MuSSCHEr AnD PETEr VErSTEEGH

IPES Story 301

Index 305

 

 

 

xi

Foreword

Stan StojkoviC and Helen Bader

It was the sociologist Egon Bittner (1970) who understood the conundrum that demo- cracies face when they attempt to apply coercive power. The instrument of this coercive power is typically presented through the police, at least in Bittner’s understanding, yet the application of coercive power in democracies as evidenced by the entire criminal justice system is also somewhat apparent and potentially controversial and problem- atic. The disjuncture between state sponsored coercive power, on the one hand, and the legitimate functioning of a democracy where an appreciation of diversity of opinion is valued, on the other hand, is the essence of what Bittner recognized as a problem for democracies. Bittner recognized something that even to this day we still struggle with in democra- cies: the expression of coercive force in a democracy must always be monitored, assessed, and questioned if we are ever to sustain democratic thinking and its concomitant prin- ciples of justice, equity, fairness, and the rule of law. Yet, the struggle to maintain criminal justice practices under a democratic political system is often times very difficult. Maybe this is as it should be. Democracy and its attendant criminal justice systems are evolving projects; they require constant vigilance and work to remain vibrant and receptive to the needs of the polity. In early twenty- first-century democracies, we are seeing disturbing trends and calls for action and change in criminal justice practices. Take, for example, police violence in America. It has seemed to escalate, at least the appearance is the police are acting arbitrarily in many of their encounters with ordinary citizens, most of whom are poor and come from communities of color. Whether it is ferguson, Missouri, Miami, florida, Chicago, Illinois, or any other community with a high profile racially based encounter, and in some cases, confrontations with the police, the outcomes are being questioned. This, again, may not be a bad thing, as it represents the responsive- ness of criminal justice officials and political leaders to minimize the appearance of problems and in some cases clear and convincing evidence of criminal justice prac- tices gone awry. This volume begins a conversation that highlights the tensions of criminal justice responses to crime in both democracies and other developing nations across the world. What editor Peterson has put together is a treasure- trove of articles and research findings that highlight global perspectives on crime prevention and community resilience. As you read these articles, take note of what is being employed across America and the rest of the world to address crime and how community resilience is an interesting proposition put forward by many authors in this volume. Yet, being community resilient is often times not enough. We have had for many years, for example, the principles and practices of “target hardening” to prevent crime and disorder as a community resilience strategy. Since the early 1990s, we have seen

 

 

xii Foreword

urban communities across the country embrace community policing ideals and prac- tices in response to crime and criminals. The community policing rubric is fairly broad and encompassing and can mean different things to different communities. We know community policing efforts in one city are not the same community policing efforts in another city. This is why policing has and is such a community phenomenon. As noted by the historian Sam Walker (1980), American criminal justice has always had a uniquely local and community bend to it, or in his words, “popular justice has always been influ- enced by the norms and values of the community.” Centralized operations of criminal justice functions really are not an American phenomenon or ideal and never have been. What is uniquely American is the diversity of responses to crime across this country and the almost bizarre ways in which Americans accept this diversity as normal but only to a point. The tipping point seems to be when criminal justice practices run counter to another American value: the rule of law. The twentieth century has seen a plethora of laws passed at all levels of government – federal, state, and local – to guide and direct criminal justice practices. As we unfold the twenty- first century, we now are seeing the advent of new issues, laws, and expectations in our evolving democracy that raise many questions regarding the responsiveness of local criminal justice systems to the commu- nities they serve. no other issue is as paramount now than how criminal justice actors are viewed by their respective communities. The reasserting principle of democracy in action is ever present in communities across America. In fact, we see the yearning for more democracy across the world. The struggles of countries in the Middle East, for example, such as Egypt and Syria, to mention a few, are daily reminders of the search for democracy and the price that must be paid to earn it and to sustain it over time. America only reflects a democracy that has reinvented itself many times over roughly 200 plus years. The twenty- first century must be understood as a time where there is much upheaval and unrest across the world. The world does seem less safe to many, especially to Ameri- cans who have now experienced terrorism first hand in the 1990s and on 9/11. The ques- tion is how do we best respond to this changing world? This volume attempts to address this question by examining specifically police practices in the new world order. Some of the articles offer specific advice surrounding certain crimes, e.g., burglary suppression, while others focus more on community resilience across the world. regardless of focus, the volume begins an inquiry into what are the various global perspectives on crime prevention and community resilience. This inquiry will take many forms and expressions. Some of the articles have a research focus or are based on a research strategy; other articles will be more prescrip- tive. What is important is that all 18 pieces in this volume provide either a conceptual roadmap on how to understand a community resilient plan to address crime or offer invaluable practical advice to communities on how best to address crime. The challenge for communities will be how to operationalize the ideas and strategies put forward here into action plans that make sense for their communities. As one of the articles in this collection states, there is no “one size fits all” approach to neighborhood policing strategies. As neighborhoods vary within a community, so do communities and countries vary tremendously, and as such, there is no panacea solu- tion to crime. As you go forward and read the articles in this volume, we would ask the

 

 

Foreword xiii

following fundamental questions: how is what the author is conveying relevant to my community? What hurdles or obstacles exist in my community that make the adoption of any ideas or action plans presented here likely or unlikely? Is there political consen- sus on how best to address crime problems in my community? Do we have examples of resiliency in my community that we can learn from in addressing and managing crime? What special populations exist within the community that would require innovative or minimally different approaches to criminal justice practices? Providing initial answers to these questions will be useful as you read the articles and assess their relevance to individual communities. Additionally, there are larger contextual issues that require the attention of the reader. These issues typically reflect some reali- ties of criminal justice practices that must be addressed or some larger contextual issues that require your examination. Take, for example, the burden that is often times felt by local criminal justice officials when they are asked to address and even manage large institutional failures, yet criminal justice practices will never sufficiently address the ills of society: a failing school system, chronic unemployment or underemployment, frac- tured families, or non- responsive churches. Criminal justice practices operate within the realm of governmental rules, regulations, political differences, and infinite expectations for stellar performance in a reality of finite resources. We know of no police executive who believes he or she is adequately funded, but we can show you police organizations that are expected to provide miracles to the communities they serve. Moreover, criminal justice agencies operate in a world of political processes and clear realities. We mean the importance of the political process to successful criminal justice operations cannot be overstated. We often times state to our students that politics does not have to be a dirty word; politics is a process by which things either get done or they do not get done. Successful criminal justice administrators are those who understand poli- tics as a process and work to influence that process toward positive outcomes for their people and agencies. As you read the articles, please consider how what is being discussed or advocated could be operationalized through the political process or not. remember, the road to hell is paved with good intentions. Similarly, great criminal justice ideas are meaningless if they cannot be operationalized in the real world. This is food for thought as you read these articles and consider the ideas presented within the community context in which you reside. Additionally, as you read the articles in this volume, it is necessary for you to place the findings, ideas, and discussions in the broader context of some realities that define and direct criminal justice organizations. We have already mentioned, for example, that all criminal justice agencies operate under limited resources and infinite expectations. This is an important consideration, but there are other equally important considerations that need to be understood as you read the articles offered here. These considerations are by no means an exhaustive list of important concerns for those interested in pur- suing crime reduction strategies, but they do assist in laying out the broader context within which criminal justice agencies function. By comprehending these consider- ations you will have a more complete understanding of what can be accomplished and what cannot be accomplished to reduce crime. The articles serve as knowledge resources regarding effective crime management strategies and the considerations lay the larger context. These crime reduction prescriptions, however, become meaningless unless

 

 

xiv Foreword

they are placed in the larger context of considerations discussed here. There have been many great ideas to reduce crime, but very few become part of criminal justice practices because they ignored contextual realities within communities. As considerations, they should be assessed within the community context, and as we suggested earlier, crimi- nal justice practices in America have always been influenced by a strong local character. Taken together – research findings and their prescriptions in concert with the consider- ations presented here – offer us reasonable hope and a methodology to address crime. The first contextual consideration is the chaotic and almost unpredictable nature of the political process. Since the political process dictates largely how criminal justice organizations will respond to crime, it is imperative that knowledge of localized political processes and persons are critical to developing and implementing effective crime reduc- tion strategies. Many of the descriptions and subsequent crime reduction prescriptions from the articles presented in this volume implicitly or explicitly state the necessity of political agreement and support in order to get a crime reduction strategy in place and implemented by local criminal justice officials. The down side is that often times politi- cal figures change or their expectations change, or worse yet there is very little scientific evidence to support the views they are extolling or pitching. no criminal justice policy change occurs in a vacuum; political support is the most important thing in order for any crime related legislation to move forward. This reality is not only an American phe- nomenon, but can be found in any country in which a democracy operates or wishes to operate (developing democracies, for example). The primary problem with the political process is its uncertainty in both program outcomes and program implementation and also the sheer arbitrariness that permeates political discussions surrounding tax payer supported initiatives. It is very common for politicians to advocate for crime reduction approaches that have very little support in any science. The best example of this phenomenon is project DArE (Drug Abuse resis- tance Education) as a criminal justice effort directed toward reducing drug abuse among young people. Project DArE has been one of the most expensive and implemented crim- inal justice initiatives in the history of the country, yet the scientific evidence, again, is clear: it does very little to nothing to reduce drug usage among its participants. So, why does it still exist? It has political support among police chiefs, politicians, the general citizenry, and crime reduction advocates. They are a political coalition that has been very effective promoting DArE programs across the country. It is tough to buck their political message: who does not want kids to get off of drugs! A second consideration is the lay of the land regarding stakeholders and crime reduc- tion efforts. All crime reduction strategies have both supporters and critics; this is a given in the political process, but the diversity of stakeholders is almost mind boggling. Ask any police chief about the people who come out to express either their support or dis- pleasure with any specific crime reduction strategy. While we expect both supporters and critics of our efforts, what we often do not realize is the differential levels of power and influence stakeholders have. In other words, not all stakeholders have the same level of resources or the degree of influence to affect the political process. This second consider- ation highlights the importance of recognizing differential levels of influence regarding resources and political clout as an important consideration. Many of the articles show what works and does not work to address crime, but what they do not provide is the

 

 

Foreword xv

knowledge of degrees of resource acquisition and political influence among community stakeholders. In this process, quite simply, some stakeholders are more influential than others. So, who are they and how are they enlisted to assist in the development and/or implementation of specific crime reduction strategies? Performance expectations for criminal justice organizations are robust, but public funding to achieve these expectations are being severely reduced or coming to an end. Criminal justice administrators are similar to other publicly funded agencies and organi- zations. The funding streams for publicly funded enterprises, such as schools, highways, health care, and criminal justice, are drying up. Whether it is due to different political choices or the lack of tax revenue, we think it is fair to say “public” funding for these endeavors is under extreme scrutiny, probably greater than any other time in the nation’s history. More and more communities are consolidating police services, for example, as a way to cut administrative and operational costs. As anyone in the public sector knows, it is not clear such measures actually save communities monies, and more importantly, if savings are evidenced through such measures how does that affect the provision of important criminal justice services and ultimately their impact on crime rates? There are no immediate and sufficient answers to this question, yet this is still a question of value for criminal justice agencies as they compete with other public and private agencies for limited public dollars. Improving technologies will have a direct impact on the administration and opera- tions of criminal justice organizations. Criminal justice administration and operations are going through revolutionary changes as it relates to the application of newer technol- ogies to suppress crime. Criminal justice employees are more versed in these technologies and their use should be a concern for criminal justice administrators and communi- ties alike. How far, for example, do we allow surveillance technologies into our lives, sometimes in an unwitting and unknowing way? Who controls the access to information stored by surveillance devices? Will the technologies be overwhelming to criminal justice agencies and overwhelming not only regarding costs of the technologies and how to use and maintain them, but also how to satisfactorily train and supervise employees with newer technologies? A final consideration for criminal justice organizations around the world is the growing globalization of crime and the varied responses to it by countries. no longer is crime just a local community issue. In America, the response to crime has always been uniquely local, and we stated this point earlier, but more importantly, crime now reaches to all parts of the world. Whether it is organized crime, computer hacking of corpora- tions and governments, or child pornography, we are seeing crime as part of a global reach strategy that encompasses the entire world. Much of this is due to the newer tech- nologies available to both cops and crooks, e.g., child pornography and the internet. The technology is upon us and the need to coordinate efforts across countries is both essential and critical but also problematic at the same time. How we address this chal- lenge may be the defining moment for countries and their systems of social control as we proceed further into the twenty- first century. This small collection of articles provides the requisite information across a myriad of topics and issues. The book is designed to both inform but also educate lay people and communities to respond to crime in not only newer ways but also recognize the impact

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