In 750-1,000 words, develop an evaluation plan to be included in your final evidence-based practice project proposal. You will use the evaluation plan in the Topic 8 assignment, during which you will synthesize the various aspects of your project into a final paper detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.

In 750-1,000 words, develop an evaluation plan to be included in your final evidence-based practice project proposal. You will use the evaluation plan in the Topic 8 assignment, during which you will synthesize the various aspects of your project into a final paper detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.

Provide the following criteria in the evaluation, making sure it is comprehensive and concise:

Discuss the expected outcomes for your evidence-based practice project proposal.

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Review the various data collection tools associated with your selected research design and select one data collection tool that would be effective for your research design. Explain how this tool is valid, reliable, and applicable.

Select a statistical test for your project and explain why it is best suited for the tool you choose.

Describe what methods you will apply to your data collection tool and how the outcomes will be measured and evaluated based on the tool you selected.

Propose strategies that will be taken if outcomes do not provide positive or expected results.

Describe the plans to maintain, extend, revise, and discontinue a proposed solution after implementation.

Refer to the “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal – Assignment Overview” document for an overview of the evidence-based practice project proposal assignments.

You are required to cite a minimum of five peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Rubric

Expected outcomes for the evidence-based practice project proposal are discussed. Thorough explanations and strong supporting research are provided.

A data collection tool is selected and a well-supported explanation for why the tool is valid, reliable, and applicable and would be effective for the research design is presented.

A statistical test is selected, and a well-supported explanation for why the test is best suited for the tool is clearly presented.

Methods that will be applied to the data collection are thoroughly discussed. A discussion of how the outcomes will be measured and evaluated based on the tool selected are presented.

Clear and well-supported strategies for nonpositive outcomes are presented.

Detailed and well-supported plans to maintain, extend, revise, and discontinue a proposed solution after implementation are presented.

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

Previous paper

Implementing plan interventions of managing for hypertension

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Implementing plan interventions of managing hypertension

Hypertension is one of the most dangerous diseases that can easily lead to death if not managed. It occurs due to increased blood pressure, and a continued rise in blood pressure can contribute to other deadly illnesses such as stroke, heart attack, or heart disease. Considering the hypertension problem is expected within the healthcare setting, there is a need to implement change in dealing with the patients to ensure that better strategies of assisting patients in managing the illness are implemented. Therefore, we will discuss how medical practitioners can utilize a digital intervention to develop planned medications to lower their blood pressure. The study will be carried out within twelve months to allow adequate information to be gathered. In addition, mixed-methods evaluation procedures will be used to understand better the effectiveness of the intervention in primary care.

Setting and access to potential subjects

The hypertension patients will be allowed to register in a system of digital intervention known as Help BP. The system is developed using the social cognitive theory; it shows personal experiences, some people’s behaviors, and individual medical behavior environmental aspects. It helps target hypertension patients with inactive medical behaviors of managing their high blood pressure (Rai. et al., 2021). Also, medical practitioners will seek to involve the newly diagnosed patients with hypertension in the system to monitor their capability to follow the outlined intervention plans.

Timeline

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To complete this project successfully, a lot of monitoring is required. It, therefore, means that the project should take a lot of time to allow all the needed data to be collected. Carrying out the study for preferably twelve months will ensure that the project includes all seasons of a year. It will allow a better understanding of how the proposed change can be adequate in different seasons. In a year, all the necessary information would have been recorded and utilized to reform strategies of offering medical care to hypertension patients.

Budget

Making sure that medical behaviors can be monitored using the proposed digital intervention will be an expensive change that requires a lot of human and monetary resources. There should be adequate finances to help develop the best efficient system for all end-users, both the patient and the health care workers. It will ensure that any concerns regarding medications that the clients consume are directly reported to the health care practitioners, and the needed responses are passed along smoothly. There are supplies for measuring blood pressure that is to be given to the test subjects. Accessing the required patients’ information can be a big challenge to this project. Therefore there is a need to include consultation costs for any necessary consultations that are to be made. The Budget required for this project is about $15400 in Total. With effective communication, stakeholders can be convinced to make a sufficient amount of donation to meet the expectations. This Budget will be allocated to various departments from the drafted proposed budget/ resource list planner in the Appendix. This is the first draft and will be modified. The list includes the transportation budget for health care workers, supplies that have blood pressure machines, PPE, and other resources. It is quite expensive because due to the effect of the Covid 19 , I will be advocating for the use of disposable equipment such as disposable blood pressure cuffs. Part of the Budget will be allocated to developing user-friendly

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software and can be customized as needed. This is a twelve-month program, and that’s why more resources will also be directed towards Data accessibility which maybe needs to track and monitor participants ( with their consent, obviously). See the table in the Appendix, which will still be modified.

Data collection

Having sufficient data for the completion of this project requires the utilization of mixed methods of collecting data. The quantitative design will ensure that numerical values are included in the research. It will allow an easy understanding of the results from the study and ensure that generalization operations can be conducted efficiently. The qualitative design will ensure that questions that the numerical data cannot explain are put into consideration. It will permit the project to use questionnaires and surveys to acquire the needed data. The subjectivity of the findings will be embraced by using mixed methods while ensuring that accurate quantitative data is portrayed. We will be dealing with a vast array of clients, and therefore utilizing these mixed methods will help broaden the findings (McManus. et al., 2021). It will allow analyzing the data that the participants provide deeply.

Methods and instruments of monitoring implementation of the proposed solution

Randomized tests that include health care practitioners such as practice nurses, health care assistants, General Practitioners, and nurse-prescribers will help monitor closely how efficient the proposed method will be. Randomized controlled trials will allow the study to be monitored closely, and the extent to which the nurses can provide the needed care is determined. Questionnaires for the clients will help identify the changes the new system is bringing. It will allow easy identification of the level at which the proposed solution has enabled them to change their medical behaviors, such as taking hypertension medications (Patel. et al., 2021). A group of

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30 practitioners and 30 clients will be allowed to take part in the study. They will be selected using the random probability sampling method to ensure the availability of participants willing to be part of this study.

Process of delivering the intervention

Health care workers have always been able to use their educational resources to apply the needed interventions when handling varying cases with clients. Management of the hypertension condition requires the health care workers to be willing to offer substantial information on how to control the illness and the best medications to use to suppress this pressure. However, the clients ought to be willing to participate in implementing the changes they are told by the professional. To allow efficient and convenient use of the proposed system, both the clients and the workers will undergo training to provide them with the confidence to manage hypertension better. After training, the necessary practices will be allowed using the prototype of the website. After the

Stakeholder

Challenges in the proposed approaches can be overcome by ensuring that the obstacles recorded during the process of studying the results change do not hinder the overall activities. Among the stakeholders who are included in the project will be the practitioners, experts in the medical field, and the patients (Fort. et al., 2021). The data from these stakeholders will be used to distinguish the appropriate adaptation of the implemented change and the non-adherence that could be present. The processes for medical escalation in responding to the proposed treatment should explain the positive contribution of health care practitioners in enforcing procedures of maintaining normal blood pressure. The implemented change’s practicality is made possible by

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allowing patients to have autonomy control of their medical behaviors while ensuring accessible information.

Feasibility of the implementation plan

The study will offer valuable information which will help establish the best means for managing and treating cases of hypertension. The implemented plan is only valid when a patient has confirmed the blood pressure measurements to be high; the client trusts that the readings offered by the system can be relied on, and the client can access medical attention easily. Considering that one has to deal with numerous patients with various backgrounds, it can be difficult to offer uniform help because the underlying factors resulting in treatment are different. The system of recording the blood pressure and determining the time when one has to take medication can be easy to the educated and well-informed patients while other patients with varying educational classification may find it difficult to understand when to measure their blood pressure level and the subsequent medications to take (Petersen. et al., 2021). Carrying out operations such as collecting home readings of blood pressure levels without following up with the necessary medical options can be classified as clinical inactivity. Therefore, the patients must ensure that they record their blood pressure level readings and take necessary treatment choices to utilize the proposed change to bring positive outcomes fully.

Therefore, it is crucial to have a system that has a tow way interaction capability to ensure that patients can request help from practitioners and the health care providers can follow up to ensure medications are taken correctly. Establishing a communication system should be done by allowing the inclusion of emails and other social platforms in the system. Helping clients remotely is crucial in enforcing their medical care behaviors but cannot be utilized independently. There is a need to encourage face-to-face interactions between patients and health

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care providers to help further analyze the diagnosis made and determine the most suited treatment plan. The proposed intervention plan can be applied to monitor clients’ safety while they are away from the hospital. It should be reinforced by frequent visits to the medical centers to guarantee the success of the intervention plan in the long run.

References

Fort, M. P., Mundo, W., Paniagua-Avila, A., Cardona, S., Figueroa, J. C., Hernández-Galdamez, D., & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2021). Hypertension in Guatemala’s Public Primary Care System: A Needs Assessment Using the Health System Building Blocks Framework. BMC Health Services Research, 21(1), 1-14.

McManus, R. J., Little, P., Stuart, B., Morton, K., Raftery, J., Kelly, J., & Yardley, L. (2021). Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) using a digital intervention in poorly controlled hypertension: randomised controlled trial. bmj, 372.

Patel, S. A., Vashist, K., Jarhyan, P., Sharma, H., Gupta, P., Jindal, D., … & Tandon, N. (2021). A model for national assessment of barriers for implementing digital technology interventions to improve hypertension management in the

public health care system in India. BMC health services research, 21(1), 1-11.

Petersen, I., Fairall, L., Zani, B., Bhana, A., Lombard, C., Folb, N., … & Lund, C. (2021). Effectiveness of a task-sharing collaborative care model for identification and

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management of depressive symptoms in patients with hypertension attending public sector primary care clinics in South Africa: pragmatic parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 282, 112-121.

Rai, T., Morton, K., Roman, C., Doogue, R., Rice, C., Williams, M., … & Hinton, L. (2021). Optimizing a digital intervention for managing blood pressure in stroke patients using a diverse sample: Integrating the person‐based approach and patient and public involvement. Health Expectations, 24(2), 327-340.

Appendix

Graphical user interface, website Description automatically generated

Implementing plan interventions of managing for hypertension

This is the previous papers before that

Framework or Model for Change2EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE CHANGE MODELKOTTER’S CHANGE MODEL Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is when the pressure in the bloodstream is above the normal range. This is a very prevalent problem in the healthcare industry (Fryar,et al., 2020). Diagnosing high blood pressure can be as simple as having consistently higher readings as normal (or hypertension). If the blood pressure levels are high, one is more likely to suffer from heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. This shows the importance of implementing a change model that will; help ensure that the problem is efficiently addressed. Kotter’s change model is useful to understand better the prevalence of the condition and its impact on nurse professionalism (Mohiuddin, &Mohteshamuddin, 2020). This paper provides a review of Kotter’s Change Model as a possible model to address hypertension in healthcare.An effective solution for changing care approaches can be found in John Kotter’s change management plan (Rajan, &Ganesan, 2017). Some of the proposed regulatory conditions support medical advances that have a significant impact on patient care. Nurses are responsible for ensuring patient safety. Nursing professionals play an important role in disseminating information among other health care providers. As stated by Kotter, change management plans must monitor the effects of behavioral change and maximize individual abilities to achieve achievable goals. As revealed by the improvement process, the change management model accommodates the enormous responsibility for information sharing during the shift change process. There are numerous learning opportunities for nurses in Kotter’s change management model. Many assumptions are made in the theory’s early stages. Kotter’s change process provides a framework for understanding the multiple stages of change supported by shareholders and administrators in an environmental context. Safety and Health Administration serves as the

Framework or Model for Change3primary source of nursing guidance. Management and leadership teams play a significant role in changing how care is delivered to different populations. The following are the steps followed: Creating urgency is the first step in the process.An institution’s desire for transformation is a critical factor in making it happen, creating a sense of urgency and igniting a fire under the organization to get things moving. As a result, we elevate the change program’s importance and send a clear message (Carman, et al., 2019). A clear explanation of why change is necessary for the organization’s various stakeholders is required for this to work. Credibility as a change agent is essential if we are to succeed in instilling a sense of urgency. In this case, it is vital to start by ensuring that we create a sense of urgency around the issue of hypertension.The second step is to put together a strong coalition.Strong leadership is critical to persuade people that change is necessary. Leaders are needed to guide the way for change to take place. Making sure all key stakeholders are fully engaged throughout each stage of the change process is essential.Creating a vision for the future is the third step in the process.Ideas and solutions for dealing with change need to be tied to a larger vision that people can understand and remember. With an eye toward the future and a clear picture of how effectively dealing with hypertension will benefit everyone, a compelling vision sells the positive aspects of the change. The difficulty arises when drastic measures such as layoffs or reduced staff are implemented. Simply because bad news is difficult to convey, organizations must have a high level of communication expertise to convey a compelling vision, regardless of the content of the message.The fourth step is to convey the vision.

Framework or Model for Change4The success of a change project will be determined by what the organization wants to achieve after creating it, such as improved patient outcomes, low cost, among others. Everyday communication within the organization is likely to compete with this message for attention, so it must be repeated frequently and powerfully to become embedded in all aspects of company operations. Keeping everyone informed is critical. Various change-related topics must be reinforced repeatedly in the communication strategy.Removing barriers is the fifth step.The staff should be motivated to get to work and realize the benefits that have been touted. We need to plan to ensure smooth operations by defining process changes and identifying potential barriers to implementation. The change team must establish additional rules and processes to deal with unexpected or forecasted problems.Create short-term successesWhen it comes to leading change, those in charge must provide all the stakeholders with a taste of success as early as possible in the process. Change leaders are looking for “quick wins” that employees can see and feel within a short period. As a result, negative thinkers and critics could jeopardize the advancement of society. The new culture is anchored in the organization, and the new norm is established by celebrating victories.Step 7: consolidating the gains made through the transformationHe claims that change fails due to declaring victory too early when true and lasting change takes time. Achieving short-term results is just the beginning of the process of bringing about long-term change. As a result, he advises not to celebrate too soon and keep the change momentum going before healthcare workers get tired.

Framework or Model for Change5The final step is to make sure that the changes in the company’s culture are firmly established.Making changes stick requires that they become part of an organization’s DNA (Mohiuddin,&Mohteshamuddin, 2020). The vision value must be reflected in the day-to-day

Previous papers for reference

Organizational Culture and Readiness1Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal: Organizational Culture and ReadinessKieran M. NjobeGrand Canyon University: < NUR-590><10/27/2021>

Organizational Culture and Readiness2Looking at the discussion in this case, the specific organization that this paper will choose is john Hopkins hospital. This specific hospital that is located in Baltimore in Maryland, is an organization that to a larger extent does support change in its different areas. Its culture is specifically accommodative to changes and it is flexible in a way that it can accept and accommodate the changes. The organization has certain social norms that are considered to play a very significant roles in this, the organization has shared health behaviors and believes that do reflect respect, trust, opportunities and teamwork for both professional and personal growth. When it comes to organization and leadership structure, this is always considered to be blended and this has specifically contributed to the success of the organization’s mission and vision (Hnizdo et al., 2017). The engagement of staff members in any decision that is made by the leaders in the organization also makes this to be very effective and this also makes employees to embrace any decisions that are to be made by the leadership. Employee engagement is one of the thing that contributed significantly to developing the culture of trust and respect in all levels of the organization and therefore ensuring that there is no much friction that is experienced if at any time change is proposed and implemented. It is therefore these specific attributes and vales that the organization has in its mission and culture that makes it to be more accommodative and flexible to changes that might be presented and proposed for the better of the patients that the organization is serving in terms of services being provided.The specific readiness tool that this paper will select and use in the selected organization is the capacity assessment tool and the management organizational stability tools. To begin with the capacity assessment tool is a tool that is specifically used in the process of measuring the capacity that an organization has, this helps in doing this by looking at certain specific areas in relation to this, this includes organizational management, governance, program management,

Organizational Culture and Readiness3human resources and finance management (Nwanna-Nzewunwa et al., 2019). This tool is very important in looking at the efficiency of the organization in developing and implementing the proposed practice change. On the other hand the management organizational stability tools basically looks at what specifically provides stability to the whole organization, identifying this will help in ensuring that the organization has a clear picture on the things that are needed for the proposed practice to be fully and successfully implemented, things such as consistency, trust, honesty etc. are things that this specific tool looks at when it comes to the implementation of the recommendations that have been described and proposed by the survey (Amparado & Ocariza, 2020). From the survey that was done in this case, it concluded and observed that the best way to ensure that hypertension is lowered is by controlling blood cholestrol levels. If this is controlled then there will be a significant improvement in mitigating the risks that are associated with hypertension. The recommendation that was therefore made by the research is that to successfully control the hypertension levels of patients an effective management of the patients knowledge using effectively enforce treatment would help in this.The culture of the organization in this case will support the evidence based practice change presented by the survey results in that, due to the trust and respect that is already there in the organization, all the stakeholders and the employees will have less friction in the process of implementing this as they will be actively. The main strength of the practice change is that it involves all the partners that are there in the organization, this therefore means that, everyone won’t feel to be left out in the process and therefore this will help reduce any kind of opposition that usually arise as a result of certain parties being excluded from the whole process (Amparado & Ocariza, 2020). However one of the weakness that this practice change will have is the fact that not all patients with hypertension will be open to the idea, and since the change is more optional,

Organizational Culture and Readiness4patients might opt not to involve themselves in the whole process and therefore might make the change to be hard to implement (Dearing, 2018). The timing of the change is however very good as the change just came at a time when the diagnosis of hypertension is increasing day in day out and methods of reducing the diagnosis are being tried, this therefore makes the timing for this to be perfect.To improve the quality, safety and cost effectiveness of the organization, some of the healthcare process that would be best for this include keeping patients healthy through things such as physical fitness, less use of tobacco and other heathy prevention measure (Jones et al., 2019). Also designing ways of detecting health problems is a healthcare process that will help in reducing risks and therefore reducing costs in the future.To better facilitate the readiness of the organization especially when it comes to hypertension, there are certain strategies that will specifically help in this, among these include frequent testing of patients who visit the healthcare facility. The patients who come for different reasons should always be tested and examined to see if they are at any risk of being exposed to hypertension or any cardiovascular diseases (Dearing, 2018). The organization can also decide to carry out a free screening initiative in the community that surrounds it and encourage residents to show up for free testing and examination. Getting this kind of data will help the organization to be ready to face any situation that they might face and assign resources that will help deal with the patients with hypertension.In order to successfully implement the practice change that has been proposed in this case, there are certain stakeholders that will be needed to successfully implement this. The first ones are the patients who are identified, these are the ones who will specifically decide as to whether the practice change will be successful or not, their acceptance will determine if the process will be

Organizational Culture and Readiness5implemented or not. The organizational management is also another stakeholder, the management will help in approving the process and assigning the resources that will be needed for the implementation of the same.The information and communication technology that will be needed in this case will be the Electronic Medical Records, this is very important when it comes to the documenting the progress of different patients with regards to their blood cholestrol levels and blood pressure. The EMR will help in communicating any issue that might arise and also categorize the patients according to their seriousness and their improvements in their different geographical locations. This will help in delivering care to the patients in a way that following up on the patients who are at a higher risks will be easier and this will help in delivering quality services to the patients with less struggle.\

And this is the main proposal for change paper

Literature Review2IntroductionIn the United States of America, hypertension is an ever-increasing diagnosis within the population. The concept is backed up by the high rates of hypertension among adults aged between 45 and 60 years. Thus, with the patients being American adults, the proposed intervention exploits diet management education using a control group to determine its effectiveness. The expected outcome is reducing blood pressure within the target population within the time frame of 12 months. For a better comprehension of the implication of qualitative and quantitative peer-reviewed research, articles will be exploited. The key search words were hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and hypertension awareness. The results from the search parameters allowed for the realization of essential articles that would significantly contribute to addressing the clinical issue. In Adults diagnosed with HTN age 45-60 in the US does Increased education regarding diet and exercise as compared to no increased education decrease blood pressure within 12 months?Literature Synthesis Among the research articles that conform to the requirements of the PICOT statement that by Roth et al. (2018), the researchers sampled data from every US state between 1990 and 2016, assessing the impact of hypertension. By first defining the condition, the researchers provide data identifying the social and lifestyle implications of hypertension. They also include statistics such as the fact that the disease has contributed to over 900,000 deaths (Roth et al., 2018). The data was collected from government agencies, thus affirming its integrity. Nonetheless, the researchers proposed the implementation of lifestyle changes that met medical requirements. The article’s value is its presentation of supporting data on the dangers of cardiovascular disease

Literature Review3caused by hypertension (Roth et al., 2018). The study approached the issue from a qualitative perspective that allowed the researchers to understand the cause of hypertension and its implications. The other research article selected to address the PICOT statement is Leening and Ikram (2018). Unlike the previous articles, the researchers offer a qualitative approach to understanding how coronary disease can occur through the improper management of hypertension. They approach the issue by assessing the various cardiovascular disease treatment guidelines for chronic conditions (Leening & Ikram, 2018). From the data, they were able to identify that lowering blood cholesterol improved patients’ conditions, thereby mitigating the risks associated with hypertension. Finally, the researchers recommended that effective management of patient knowledge using knowledge effectively enforce treatment (Leening & Ikram, 2018). Thus, the article supports the PICOT statement as it demonstrates two aspects being exploited. The outcome is the impact of preventive measures and the value of patient education. By applying both strategies, the proposed outcome can be attained. Tran et al. (2021) also contribute to the article presented by Roth et al. (2018) as it offers a detailed statistical analysis of cardiovascular risk factors among the people of Nevada. However, it addresses lifestyle conditions demonstrating how their actions place them at high risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (Tran et al., 2021). By focusing on the lifestyle implications of hypertension, the study offers the needed information to develop an effective patient education strategy. When the data is coupled with the quantitative assessment conducted by Ahuja et al. (2018), the lack of awareness contributes to the discussion. The researcher exploited statistical data to identify the limited well-being of patients with hypertension (Ahuja

Literature Review4et al., 2018). The data was based on demographics, thus allowing for the PICOT strategy to have specific populations to target. Besides addressing the health and lifestyle implications of hypertension, Krist et al. (2020) offer the value of screening for hypertension among adults and adolescents. The objective is to establish the best patient improvement strategy for large societies (Krist et al., 2020). The information from the research allows for practical considerations when developing strategies to meet the large PICOT target population. In other words, appreciating the biological factors impacting the population, it is possible to influence the conditions attributed to hypertension. Thus, it demonstrates that there are other effective strategies for aiding hypertensive patients other than educational approaches. The approach is supported by Zhou et al. (2021), who determine effective solutions to hypertension globally. In other words, understanding global trends can facilitate right data collection, which can be applied to find conditions prevalent in specific demographics. Such information augments the overall results of the PICOT statement. Lastly, Luo et al. (2020) and Guirguis-Blake et al. (2021) support the application of screening techniques for a better appreciation of high blood pressure and long-term cardiovascular disease among young people. In other words, Guirguis-Blake et al. (2021) exploited statistical data to determine the value of screening measures and the reduction of hypertension due to preparedness. But Luo et al. (2020) exploited screening to effectively exploit knowledge improvement among patients in early and late treatment phases.ComparisonWhen the articles are compared to each other numerous similarities and differences are identified. The most common similarity between the journal articles is the effect of hypertension. All the researchers support the fact that hypertension is a key risk factor for cardiovascular

Literature Review5disease. Additionally, it is also considered a leading cause of death among various people globally, attributed to lifestyle. Other similarities include the positive influence that patient education may have on addressing the problem. Though each author supports the applications of patient education, they, however, have different applications of the strategy. In other words, the researchers approach the problem from various aspects. By applying different tools and strategies, they understand the sociological, health, and lifestyle implications. The articles selected share a theme founded on appreciating hypertension and cardiovascular diseases to change the current situation. This idea is demonstrated by comparing Leening and Ikram (2018) and Tran et al. (2021). The former assesses government data collected for 26 years to understand the factors contributing to the rise in hypertension and cardiovascular disease among Americans. Data is then used to emphasize the essential role of lifestyle improvement, which exploits patient education (Leening & Ikram, 2018). But Tran et al. (2021) collect data from Nevadans assessing risk factors presented to patients. Similarly, the data is exploited to develop sustainable lifestyle actions by exploiting patient edification (Tran et al., 2021). However, from a personal perspective, the research articles presented limitations, such as the lack of sample data on the impact of patient edification. Edification has been identified as the most effective strategy; however, there is limited data on its influence and efficacy. Suggestion for Future Research The assessment of the literature exploited various approaches in understanding the clinical issue and developing practical solutions. However, limited data were collected on the practicality or efficacy of patient education in preventing hypertension. It created a limitation to the desired outcome of the research. However, it presented enough data demonstrating that the sample

Literature Review6population used in the various research experienced lifestyle changes due to various factors contributing to their overall hypertensive condition.ConclusionOverall, the information and data accessed from the peer-reviewed journal articles identified hypertension as a disease affecting millions of people, from adolescents to the elderly. However, they support the position that most hypertensive individuals are between the ages of 45 and 60 years. Moreover, they attribute hypertension as a pivotal contributor to cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in the US. Understanding the cause of the disease and how it can be prevented is the key theme of all the articles, with researchers employing qualitative and quantitative strategies. The outcome was the common understanding that lifestyle choices played a critical role in the high blood pressure among millions of Americans. Numerous strategies were proposed; however, the key strategy to reducing the causes of hypertension is patient education. Ensuring the patient is aware of the implications of their lifestyle choices on their health is the initial approach. It is then addressed with strategies that would help them reduce their high blood pressure, such as dietary management. However, the expected change is dependent on the individual

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