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Select one of the public health issues that you described in the Week 1 assignment and explain how the ten essential services are addressing that issue in your community or state. You should directly identify at least three of the ten essential services and show the relationship between the essential service and the public health issue. Present the information in 5–7 pages. Provide an overview of the issue, including the target population, the status of the public health issue, descriptive statistics, policy information, the involvement and role of key organizations, key activities, and any challenges that are related directly to addressing the issue.
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Week 1 Project
Identifying a Public Health Issues
Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV) and obesity is running ramped in the state of Virginia. HIV is a virus that can lead to AIDS if it is not properly diagnosed and treated. Unlike many viruses, the human body cannot rid itself completely of the virus, even when treated with proper care (HIV, n.d.). Once a person has the virus they have it for life! It is truly a life sentence. There is no cure for the virus, only medications that allow one to be comfortable as they live with the virus. HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically T Cells. Overtime, the destruction of these cells causes one to not be able to fight of infection or other illnesses. Oxford Dictionary, defines obesity as, the condition of being grossly overweight (Oxford, n.d.) This can be caused by poor eating habits, thyroid complications, or lack of exercise. Each one of these issues have been brought to health care providers as a major concern for the Hamptons Roads area and the state of Virginia as a whole.
HIV effects many different communities and is not specific to any race, gender, ethnicity, and or age group. It is known to widely effect the Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) community yet is still a problem for all people. The reason this community takes a heavy hit to the illness is due to homosexual sexual interactions, with most of the contraction rates being male to male relationships. This is a sexually transmitted disease yet it can also be
presented in one’s life through other sources, such as, birth, heterosexual relationships, and injection drug use. If sex is a part of any person life old or the risk of contracting HIV is there.
As of 2015, it said that 21,607 people are living with AIDS in Virginia (AIDSSVU, n.d.). 73.6 percent of these people were male and 26.4 percent of this population were female. If broken down by race, 58.3 percent were black, 8.8 percent were Hispanic/Latino, and about 28.4 percent were white. The rate of black men living with the disease was 5.6 times that of their white counterparts, along with women, coming in at 16.1 times higher than white females. In 2016, there were 893 new cases of persons diagnosed with AIDS (AIDSSVU, n.d.) In Virginia, the estimated percent of AIDS diagnoses within three months of initial HIV diagnosis in 2015, was 82.3 percent diagnosed with HIV and 17.7 percent diagnosed with AIDS (AIDSSVU, n.d.). In 2015, in the male transmission category of people living with diagnosed HIV, 8.1 percent contracted the virus through drug use, 11.1 percent with heterosexual contact, 74.1 percent male-to-male sexual contact, and 5.6 percent both male-to-male contact and injection drug use, with 1.1 percent through other sources. Female transmissions were 16.5 percent injection drug use, 80.5 percent heterosexual contact, and 3.0 percent through other methods.
The state if Virginia offers many programs both on state and local level to help make life a little easier for those effected by the virus. The Virginia Department of Health, created the AIDS drugs assistance program in 1991. This program provides affordable medications for those who are infected that are low-income or have no insurance (VDH, n.d.). This program is funded by the Ryan White Part B. The Virginia HIV/AIDS Resource and Consultation Center mission is to expand quality care for those persons living with HIV/AIDS through multidisciplinary educational programming for health care providers throughout the state of Virginia (VHARCC, n.d.). This organization is supported by the Virginia Department of Health’s Division of Disease Prevention, VHARRCC workers with health care providers, and also academic and community health care centers (VHARCC, n.d.). In 2016, there were several organizations receiving federal funding and grants for their endless efforts of prevention, education, and research. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention received $15,911,837, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Administration was given $1,644,941, Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program $49,863,123, Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS $ 2,739,857, with all totals to $70, 59,767 (AIDSSVU, n.d.). Currently, the local health department is supplying anyone who feels they may be infected by the virus pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP is a series of medication given before a person is exposed to the virus. This pill can stop the risk of infection yet it has to be taken in the proper dosage. It is covered by most insurances, Medicaid, and Medicare and reduces the risk of transmission by 90 percent.
It is said that Virginia has been gradually putting on a couple of a bigger number of pounds than anticipated. Weight, can prompt interminable, intense, and even savage diseases, for example, diabetes. It can likewise prompt hypertension, stroke, heart assault, coronary vascular sickness, coronary vascular ailment, and considerably tumor (ASU, n.d.). It is by and large caused by eating excessively and consuming to close to nothing! More often than not the numbers on the scale ascend because of the utilization of high measures of vitality, generally sugars and fats.
In 2016, the state ranked 31 in obesity prevalence, which was unchanged from the results found in 2015. These results released by the Centers for Disease Control were based on self-reported surveys on behavioral risk factors (Patch, n.d.). In 2017, Virginia was reported to have
the 29th highest adult obesity rate in the nation (Stateofobesity, n.d.). Virginia’s adult obesity rate currently is 29.0 percent, up from 18.7 percent in the year 2000 and 11.3 percent in 1990 (Stateofobesity, n.d.). The obesity rates now exceed 35 percent in five states, 30 percent in 25 states, and 25 percent in 46 states. In high school students, Virginia ranks 28 out of 43, and the current obesity rate as of 2017 is 12.7%. The obesity rate by age as of 2016 in Virginia was, 18-25 at 18.2 percent, (26-44) 27.5 percent, (45-64) percent, (65+) 27.8 percent. Rates by race were said, whites at 27.3 percent, black 39.4 percent, and Latino 29.6 percent. In 2010, there were, 644,975 diabetes cases due to obesity and it is projected by 2030 there will be 1,020,739 cases. Also, in 2010, the hypertension due to obesity cases was, 1,512,608 and the projected cases for 2030 was 2,103,174.
The state has actualized numerous arrangements to forestall stoutness. For the disposal in early youth stoutness there are directions requiring authorized ECE projects to permit or support nearby breastfeeding, they have set definition for physical action in ECE settings, and the state has controls requiring authorized ECE projects to give dinners and bites that meet dietary rules. In schools, the state requires basic, center, and secondary school kids to take part in physical training. The state likewise requires primary school kids to take an interest in break. Ladies Infant and Children (WIC) gives dietary advising and additionally help to low-wage families to have the capacity to bear the cost of a more advantageous determination of nourishments. There is an Adult Binge Eating Support Group situated in Herdon Virginia, whose objective is to help and give essential devices to adhering to a good diet and enthusiastic eating. The Virginia Hospital Center, has many surgeons, specializing in bariatric surgery. The program offers nutritional evaluation and education, psychological evaluation and support, body fat analysis, support meetings, medically supervised weight loss programs, and medically supervised weight loss programs (obesityhelp, n.d.). If there is a child that suffers from obesity their pediatrician should also be a great help in assisting the family and the child with helpful tools on how to overcome this obstacle.
Both of these public health topics resonates with me due to me having an aunt who died from AIDS when I was younger and a cousin (which was her daughter who was born with the disease) who is currently 27 years old and weighs 89 pounds from this illness. I also have a younger brother who is 12 years old and weighs twice my weight and is shorter in statue.
Sex education should be mandatory in all schools as early as elementary school. I think that schools should also provide students with condoms and information about contraceptives. The should also be an open conversation in households as well. Manny people who are sexually active learned through experience young and old. I think it should also be a topic in churches and other public places where everyone has access to. Not all people who are having sex can afford condoms. Clean needles should be given out at health centers and shelters. I know it sounds crazy but everyone is going to live the life they choose so why not give them a healthier way to live. I believe obesity for most is a choice (when it is not caused by other health issues). In school and children and those who are unable to prepare meals for themselves I believe the choice is selfishly made by their parents. I think education in school about healthier food choices and a balanced life is key. There is should be a case worker assigned to children who are obese and their parents should have to take classes as well on how to properly feed their children. For adults who are obese especially in the medical field I believe their jobs should hold them accountable for their health. There should be rules implemented that stop grossly obese people from receiving health benefits through their jobs. I know these efforts sound harsh but something
has to give! If the people themselves can’t be held accountable it’s up to those around them to give them a little motivation. Healthy food should also be made affordable to all! Major grocery stores should be made to lower prices on fruits and vegetable. The government should also stop putting poor food choices in low- income areas. There are so many things that could change yet what will it take for them to change?
Virginia Department of Health. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/virginia-beach/infectious-disease-and-conditions/
Virginia Health Care Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://www.vhcf.org/data/community-health-trends/
Virginia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://aidsvu.org/state/virginia/
CDC. (2018, February 21). What Are HIV and AIDS? Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/about-hiv-and-aids/what-are-hiv-and-aids
Answers to Commonly-Asked Questions about PrEP. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://www.greaterthan.org/prep/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI4oLP76q93AIVEJ-fCh1WvQZTEAAYAiAAEgK1r_D_BwE#how-effective-is-prep
VHARCC. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.vharcc.com/
Virginia Department of Health. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/disease-prevention/disease-prevention/hiv-care-services/
Obesity | Definition of obesity in US English by Oxford Dictionaries. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/obesity
Hambrick, G. (2016, September 21). Obesity in Virginia: Where Does the Commonwealth Rank? Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://patch.com/virginia/woodbridge-va/obesity-virginia-where-does-commonwealth-rank
Virginia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://stateofobesity.org/states/va#policies
Virginia Hospital Center Physician Group – Surgical Specialists. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.obesityhelp.com/profiles/bariatric-center/surgical-associates-at-virginia-hospital-center/
Week 1 Project 7
Trend: Obesity, Virginia, United States. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/annual/measure/Obesity/state/VA