Horace MAnn School Continental Glaciation and Stream Valleys Questionnaire

Horace MAnn School Continental Glaciation and Stream Valleys Questionnaire

Horace MAnn School Continental Glaciation and Stream Valleys Questionnaire

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Laboratory 11: Streams Stream valleys are the most common landforms on the Earth’s surface. Streams flow downhill from a source area that is at a higher elevation, such as a mountain, to a lower elevation where they usually empty into a lake, another stream, or the ocean. The lowest level to which a stream can flow is its base level. Gradient To play video :https://youtu.be/semOKPvmoso The slope along which a stream descends is its gradient. The gradient is the amount of vertical fall (in feet or meters) per horizontal distance (in miles or kilometers). The general formula is: mathrm{Gradient}=frac{text{Change in elevation between two points}}{text{Distance between the two points}}Gradient=Distance between the two pointsChange in elevation between two points A stream’s gradient is generally larger (steeper) in the upper reaches near the headwaters and smaller (gentler) in lower reaches. To play video : https://youtu.be/5k-_cC9FHo8 Stream Erosion In their upper reaches streams near the headwaters have steep, narrow, V-shaped valleys. Downstream, closer to the mouth, the stream valleys decrease in steepness, become wider, and floodplains are deposited. Two principal types of stream erosion are: 1. downcutting, which deepens the valley toward base level 2. lateral erosion, which widens the valley walls Drainage Patterns Drainage patterns form as a result of stream valleys intersecting. Drainage pattern is strongly influenced by the rock types and geologic structures that underlie an area. If the rock is homogeneous, the pattern tends to resemble a branching tree (dendritic). In an area of linear ridges and valleys, streams mostly follow the valleys with small tributaries that flow off the ridges and intersect the streams at 90° angles (trellis). Larger trellis streams may even cut through the ridges. Streams may radiate away from a central point of high elevation (radial) or they can follow channels through fractured or faulted rock (rectangular). Channel Types The channel of a stream can be described as straight, meandering, or braided. Straight channel streams occur in steep areas and erode their channels mostly by downcutting. Meandering streams occur in flat areas and exhibit mainly lateral erosion. Braided streams consist of numerous channels divided by sediment bars. They occur in areas with large amounts of bed load sediment (gravel, sand) which the stream does not have the capacity to transport. Stream Landforms In the lower reaches of a stream where the gradient is less, a stream will migrate from side to side across the valley floor forming hairpin loops known as meanders. Along the inside of a meander, the channel is shallower, water velocity is lower, and this allows for sand or gravel to be deposited in point bars. Along the outside of a meander, called the cut bank, the channel is deeper, and water velocity and turbulence are greater causing erosion. Streams migrate laterally by eroding the cut bank and depositing sediment on the point bar. When meanders become so sinuous that the thin area of land between two meanders (the neck) is cut through, a meander cut-off is formed. The cutoff meander forms a crescent shaped lake, known as an oxbow lake, which may eventually be filled with fine grained sediment and organic matter. A meander scar remains and can be identified on a topographic map by the curvature of contour lines. If a stream flows from a steep mountain canyon into a flat valley an abrupt drop in velocity (speed) occurs due to the decrease in gradient. The stream cannot transport the same sediment load and as a result, a large fan-shaped wedge of sediment called an alluvial fan is deposited at the base of the mountain. Streams may receive more water than they are capable of carrying at a given time. If this occurs, flood waters will spill over their banks, leaving behind ridges of silty sediment called natural levees. Natural levees run parallel to the stream channel and build up along the edge of the channel as a result of repeated flooding. After flood waters spill over the banks, they spread across flat areas known as floodplains next to the stream channel. During waning stages of a flood, velocity decreases and suspended silt and clay settle out on the floodplain. In large floodplains the meander field of the main stream is usually smaller than the floodplain and the floodplain contains yazoo streams, tributaries that flow parallel to the main stream channel for long distances before eventually joining it. Source: https://youtu.be/3YdEkegvJCQ Refer to the map below to answer questions 1-9. Review of topographic map principles: Question 1 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the contour interval on this map? – blank1 – feet What is the contour interval on this map? blank1 – Numeric Answer feet Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 2 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What direction is Magnolia River flowing? – blank1 – What direction is Blue Creek flowing? – blank2 What direction is Magnolia River flowing? blank1 – Word Answer What direction is Blue Creek flowing? blank2 – Word Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 3 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the elevation of the following points? A.- blank1 – feet B.- blank2 – feet C.blank3 – feet What is the elevation of the following points? A. blank1 – Numeric Answer feet B. blank2 – Numeric Answer feet C. blank3 – Numeric Answer feet Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 4 HomeworkUnanswered What is the change in elevation between A and B? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 500 b 1500 c 1000 d 1200 Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 5 HomeworkUnanswered What is the approximate distance between A and B? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 8.5 mi b 8 mi c 7 mi d 9.5 mi Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 6 HomeworkUnanswered Calculating gradient of a stream: Calculate the stream gradient of the Magnolia River from point A to point B. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 117.6 b 123.5 c 132.4 d 110.2 Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Mapping a drainage divide: Imagine a line connecting the hill tops around the Magnolia River. (One hill is labeled with an X. There are 5 other hills.) The map area within this line is the drainage basin of the Magnolia River. Precipitation falling within this area will flow toward the Magnolia River. The line is a drainage divide. It separates the Magnolia River drainage basin from other drainage basins in the map area. Question 7 HomeworkUnanswered Which stream would be contaminated if a chemical spill occurred at D? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Magnolia Stream b Catfish Brook c Blue Creek Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit MOCCASIN MESA QUADRANGLE, COLORADO (7.5 minute series topographic map) Question 8 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the contour interval on this map? – blank1 – What is the unit associated with this contour interval? (Feet, meters, kilometers, miles) – blank2 What is the contour interval on this map? blank1 – Numeric Answer What is the unit associated with this contour interval? (Feet, meters, kilometers, miles) blank2 – Word Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 9 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the ratio scale? 1:- blank1 What is the ratio scale? 1: blank1 – Numeric Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 10 HomeworkUnanswered One inch on this map equals how many feet on the ground? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 2000 b 1000 c 10000 d 5000 Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 11 HomeworkUnanswered This is a ___ minute series map. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 7.5 b 15 c 30 x 60 Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 12 HomeworkUnanswered Find the Ruins Road on the left side of your downloaded pdf map. If you drive from the north to the south, are you driving up in elevation or down in elevation? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a down b up Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 13 HomeworkUnanswered Which type of drainage pattern is present in the map area? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Dendritic b Gentle c Steep d Trellis e Radial f Rectangular Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 14 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What directions are the following streams flowing? A. Mancos River (NW, NE, SW, or SE) – blank1 – B. Lewis Creek (NW, NE, SW, or SE) – blank2 – C. Stream in Morfield Canyon (N, S, E, or W) – blank3 What directions are the following streams flowing? A. Mancos River (NW, NE, SW, or SE) blank1 – Word Answer B. Lewis Creek (NW, NE, SW, or SE) blank2 – Word Answer C. Stream in Morfield Canyon (N, S, E, or W) blank3 – Word Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 15 HomeworkUnanswered What is the name of the largest stream? (the one most other streams flow into) Type your answer and submit Word Answer – Type your answer and submit Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 16 HomeworkUnanswered Describe the steepness if you were to walk along this stream. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Extremely shallow incline b Really steep and deep Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 17 HomeworkUnanswered Describe the steepness if you were to try to leave the stream valley? (select the correct answer between the two) Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Very steep b Very shallow incline Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit ENNIS QUADRANGLE, MONTANA Question 18 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the contour interval on this map? – blank1 – What is the unit associated with this contour interval? (Feet, meters, kilometers, miles) – blank2 What is the contour interval on this map? blank1 – Numeric Answer What is the unit associated with this contour interval? (Feet, meters, kilometers, miles) blank2 – Word Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 19 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the ratio scale? 1:- blank1 What is the ratio scale? 1: blank1 – Numeric Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 20 HomeworkUnanswered One inch on this map equals __ feet on the ground. (There are 5280 feet in a mile. On this map 1 inch is approximately 1 mile. Please use the ratio scale to calculate the answer.) Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 5208 b 3500 c 4880 d 5920 Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 22 HomeworkUnanswered This is a ___-minute series map. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a 7.5 b 15 c 30 x 60 Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 23 HomeworkUnanswered Does this map show a larger or smaller area of the Earth’s surface than a 7.5 minute series map? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Larger area b Smaller area Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 24 HomeworkUnanswered Observe the Madison River of Ennis. What type of channel is shown? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Braided b Meandering c Trellis d Radial Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 25 HomeworkUnanswered What causes the formation of this channel type? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a A large amount of sediment is being transported. b Steep gradient c Large amounts for water d Intermittent flow Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 26 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What general direction are the following streams flowing? A. Madison River (NE, NW, SE, or SW) – blank1 – B. O’dell Creek -SW map area (NE/NW or SE/SW) – blank2 – C. Bear Creek – S central map area (N, S, E, or W)- blank3 – D. Cedar Creek -NW map area (N/NE, S/SE, S/SW, or N/NW) – blank4 What general direction are the following streams flowing? A. Madison River (NE, NW, SE, or SW) blank1 – Word Answer B. O’dell Creek -SW map area (NE/NW or SE/SW) blank2 – Word Answer C. Bear Creek – S central map area (N, S, E, or W) blank3 – Word Answer D. Cedar Creek -NW map area (N/NE, S/SE, S/SW, or N/NW) blank4 – Word Answer Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit For the next 3 questions, please refer to the statement below: Find the streams that flow westward from Fan Mountain to the Cedar Creek Alluvial Fan. Question 27 HomeworkUnanswered Describe the stream gradient along the Fan Mountain. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Steep b Moderate c Flat Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 28 HomeworkUnanswered Describe the stream gradient along the Cedar Creek Alluvial Fan. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Steep b Moderate c Flat Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 29 HomeworkUnanswered Describe the Gradient of the Madison River. Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Steep b Moderate c Flat Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Source: https://youtu.be/lq2VAD39GgE Question 30 HomeworkUnanswered Explain how the Cedar Creek Alluvial Fan formed. Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit CASTLE ROCK QUADRANGLE, KANSAS (7.5-minute series topographic map) Question 31 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: What is the latitude at the SE corner of the map? – blank1 -° – blank2 -’ – blank3 -’’ What is the latitude at the SE corner of the map? blank1 – Numeric Answer ° blank2 – Numeric Answer ’ blank3 – Numeric Answer ’’ Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 32 HomeworkUnanswered What type of drainage pattern occurs in this area? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Dendritic b Braided c Trellis d Radial Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 33 HomeworkUnanswered What causes this pattern of drainage to develop? Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 34 HomeworkUnanswered What type of river is the Smoky Hill River? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Meandering b Braided c Dendritic d Straight Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 35 HomeworkUnanswered Why is the blue line of the Smoky Hills River dashed? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a It is intermittent b It has a high sediment load c It is steep d It floods a lot Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit DANIELS, TEXAS QUADRANGLE (2 MAPS) The Daniels, Texas Quadrangle (7.5 Minute Series) is located north-west of Hempstead, Texas. The major feature on the quadrangle is the Brazos River which forms the boundary between Washington and Waller Counties. Comparison of the 1961 and the 1989 maps shows changes in the formation of fluvial (stream) features and the location of the stream channel. Answer the following questions about the fluvial features found on the two maps and changes in the Brazos River during this time period. Identifying Stream Landforms on a Topographic Map REFER TO: PART OF THE DANIELS QUADRANGLE, TEXAS (labeled) (7.5 minute series topographic map 1961) Question 36 HomeworkUnanswered Fill in the Blanks Type your answers in all of the blanks and submit – current answer: Identify the fluvial features indicated by letters on the 1961 map. – blank1 Backswamp – blank2 -Floodplain – blank3 -Oxbow Lake – blank4 -Tributary Stream – blank5 -Cut bank – blank6 -Yazoo Stream – blank7 -Point Bar – blank8 -Valley Wall – blank9 -Cutoff / Bypass blank10 -Neck – blank11 -River Channel Identify the fluvial features indicated by letters on the 1961 map. blank1 – Word Answer Backswamp blank2 – Word Answer Floodplain blank3 – Word Answer Oxbow Lake blank4 – Word Answer Tributary Stream blank5 – Word Answer Cut bank blank6 – Word Answer Yazoo Stream blank7 – Word Answer Point Bar blank8 – Word Answer Valley Wall blank9 – Word Answer Cutoff / Bypass blank10 – Word Answer Neck blank11 – Word Answer River Channel Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 37 HomeworkUnanswered What type of channel does the Brazos River have? Select an answer and submit. For keyboard navigation, use the up/down arrow keys to select an answer. a Meandering b Braided c Straight Unanswered Please select an answer to submit Submit Please select an answer to submit Question 38 HomeworkUnanswered What is the meaning of the map symbol used for the stream labeled J? Select an answer and submit. For ke…
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