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Factors associated with poor lipid and glycemic levels in type 2 diabetes patients

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Abstract

There is a scarcity of research studies on the fast-spreading outbreak of type-2 diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, researchers performed a study on glycemic and lipid profiles and related predisposing factors in Eritrea. The study included 309 participants with diabetes mellitus who were on routine follow-up. The researchers gathered data on diagnostic chemistry and anthropometric factors and evaluated the link involving selected variables using Fischer’s exact test. Researchers used multivariable logistic regression to find the parameters linked to higher probabilities of unsatisfactory glucose and specific lipid panel subfractions. Waist measurement, gender, high blood pressure, and HbA1c proportion were all possible causes of aberrant lipid levels.  According to the researchers, the standard of healthcare in the context, as judged by glycemic and particular lipid objectives, was unsatisfactory in this investigation. As a result, advances in both measures were urgently needed, necessitating evidence-based refinement of pharmaceutical and lifestyle approaches. As a result, further investigations on several features of DM with lengthy follow-up were recommended. The study sought ethical approval and followed the ethical requirements concerning its participants.

Factors associated with poor lipid and glycemic levels in type 2 diabetes patients

From February to May 2017, scientists performed this research in the Halibut Regional Referral Hospital in Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea. The study targeted only patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was published in the year 2020. I have found the study to be significant in providing care for diabetic patients, as it illustrates particular variables that need to be controlled to manage type 2 diabetes. Several scholars have studied this topic following the increased prevalence of diabetes worldwide, particularly in the US. In addition, inadequate knowledge about the management of diabetes and the burden to the healthcare setting has triggered scientists and other individuals to study the topic. The study was meant to find factors that have contributed to the development of complications related to diabetes. These factors affected the lipids and glycemic levels directly. Therefore, it was important to find out these associated risk factors as this would help develop holistic interventions in care for patients with type 2 diabetes and management of the disease. This aspect would help in reducing the burden of diabetes on the healthcare system. This study relates to a study on diabetes mellitus and covid-19. A study on clinical findings in diabetic Mellitus patients with COVID-19 found that most of the COVID-19 patients with DM were vulnerable to severe disease. The study concluded that a high glycemic index was among the risk factors for severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus. In this report, we will review the methods employed in the study and discuss the study results.

Methods

The scientists obtained data on the age of the patients, the duration of the disease, and the presence of comorbidities from patients’ records. They employed questionnaires that incorporated questions to establish information on lifestyle-related diabetic Mellitus risk factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and engagement in physical exercise. The scientists sampled blood specimens from each patient, subsequently tested for fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, LDL-c, HDL-c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Thus, participants received adequate information on the study, with the benefits and the potential risks. I further searched on the internet and published books such as the Diabetes Code by Dr. Jason Fung as a supplement to the information to this study. I discovered the interrelationship between diabetes and lipids and how particular lifestyle factors contributed to poor lipid levels and subsequent development of diabetes. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, this study influenced how diabetes contributes to severe illness and increased mortality due to covid-19. This need was necessitated by the increased severity of covid-19 in patients with underlying conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, the study could have incorporated individuals from different races to determine whether race was a factor in developing the disease.

Results

On the sociodemographic factors, the duration of diabetes mellitus in the patients was 12.1 years, and the mean age was 57.8. The mean values of BMI were greater than the normal, that is, 24.6. From the data analysis, 70.6% of the research clients had higher waist circumference and were overweight. 76.7% of the study participants had a poor glycemic index and was witnessed in the majority of the participants who consumed alcohol and those who had hypertension. 30.7% of the participants had high-risk serum concentrations and in more females than males. 43.7% of the study participants had high triglycerides, with more males than females affected. A quarter had high LDL-c while 40% had high HDL-c. 45.3% of the population had an elevated risk of suboptimal TG/HDL ratios. The findings indicate that most of these abnormal parameters were associated with sex, as demonstrated by multivariate analysis.

Discussion

The most significant finding was that 76.7 percent of those surveyed had inadequate glycemic control. Comparable percentages have been observed in a related study from various nations in SSA: 80% in Ethiopia (Tekalegn et al., 2018), 73.52 percent in Uganda (Kibirig et al., 2014), and 69.5 percent in Kenya (Otieno et al., 2017). Despite the adoption of different HbA1c cut-offs, these figures are lower than those reported in several advanced nations: 38 percent in the United States (Umpierrez et al., 2002) and 43.4 percent in Korea (Choi et al., 2018). Surprisingly, past investigations conducted in the same hospital in 2009 found that 29.9% of registered patients met the optimum HbA1c limits (Seyum et al., 2010). As a result, it is possible to conclude that the standard of DM healthcare in this country deteriorated. This report validates the study findings due to the slow growth witnessed in the country during the past years.

This population’s clinical manifestation of T2DM was marked by the elevated incidence of numerous features related to metabolic syndromes like dyslipidemia, abnormal waist circumference, and hypertension. This finding points to insufficient organizational initiatives or individual issues, such as lifestyles and therapeutic compliance. As a result, advances in the control of both hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are urgently required. This reality will necessitate the refinement of non – pharmacological and pharmacological therapies that are evidence-based. The information can also correlate demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics with hyperglycemia and lipid panel data. The research provided some important information for future research.

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