# Factorial designs

## Factorial designs

QUESTION 1

Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous? What information can factorial designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?

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QUESTION 2

The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Do you agree? Explain your position.

QUESTION 3

Under what circumstances would a researcher choose a longitudinal study over a cross-sectional study? Give a specific example of a question that could be addressed with a longitudinal study and explain why that developmental design is preferred.

QUESTION 4

A fundamental pitfall in qualitative research is to confuse the actual observations with the interpretation of the observations. Why is it important that these two things remain distinctly separate?

QUESTION 5

Dr. D is conducting an interview with Amber, who works as a cocktail waitress. Here is an excerpt:
Dr. D: What shift do you typically work?Amber: Night. I come in a around 7:00 p.m. and work until 2:00 a.m.Dr. D: Cocktail waitressing has a bad reputation. How bad is it to work here?Amber: Not so bad. Most of our customers are pretty nice guys. They’re regulars and they don’t drink too much and get out of control. In fact, if one customer is giving me a hard time, another often steps in and helps out.
Dr. D: As the evening progresses, the men give you more and more problems, don’t they? What do you do about that?Amber: I ignore it as long as I can. I get the manager to step in if they don’t straighten up.
Do you notice any problems with the interviewing technique of Dr. D? Describe the problems you see in the excerpts and then explain what Dr. D should do differently.

QUESTION 6

In general, research is evaluated based on whether it’s well done, valid and reliable, and useful. Why, then, are open-mindedness and explicitness of assumptions and biases hallmarks of well-done qualitative research?

QUESTION 7

Conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents, taking notes, and organizing those notes. Explain.

QUESTION 8

The study of how ideas developed over time is a type of conceptual or psychological historical research. Identify a key concept in your own discipline and describe in detail the types of primary sources you could use to understand its history, explaining what each source might add to the study.

QUESTION 9

What are the general advantages of conducting a mixed-methods study, rather than two or more different studies, to address a single research question?

QUESTION 10

Why do mixed-methods studies require special consideration of the ethics involved in conducting the study? Explain, using an example to support your claims.