Explore the impact of externalities on sustainability factors using a tax on gasoline as an example.

Complete this assignment after reviewing the readings below. A brief history of the gas tax in the United States http://time.com/4803516/gas-tax-history/ It’s been 25 years since the federal gas tax went up https://www.npr.org/2018/10/05/654670146/its-been-25-years-since-the-federal-gas-tax-went-up Should we tax people for being annoying? http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/13/magazine/should-we-tax-people-for-being-annoying.html?_r=0 Harvard economic professor Greg Mankiw’s recommendation for a gas tax http://gregmankiw.blogspot.com/2006/10/pigou-club-manifesto.html Washington State to test pay-by-the-mile as a way to fund highways http://www.theolympian.com/news/local/article171403227.html QS to answer: 1. How is an externality defined in an economic context? (5 points) 2. How can externalities contribute to a lack of sustainability? (5 points) 3. We read about the federal gas tax. Look up the state gas tax in the state you live in. How has it changed in recent years? (5 points) Oregon !!!! Please check the gas tax in OR!!!!! 4. Describe four externalities associated with gasoline and vehicle use? Provide at least one example of a positive externality and at least one example of a negative externality. (5 points) 5. Describe 2 additional situations where it might make sense to use a Pigovian tax in one paragraph each. (5 points) 6. Describe 3 challenges associated with implementing a Pigovian tax in one paragraph each? Think about criticisms of Pigovian taxes that you came across in the readings. (10 points) 7. Explain whether or not you think that a Pigovian gas tax is a good option for internalizing externalities associated with transportation. Consider economic, social and environmental factors. Are you in favor of a Pigovian tax in other situations? (10 points) 8. Choose a gas tax rate that you feel is appropriate (in dollars per gallon) and justify that value. (5 points) 9. Describe two alternatives to a Pigovian tax for mitigating the impacts of externalities associated with gasoline and vehicle use. Explain why you think these options could be more effective than a gas tax? (10 points)

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