Essay Question

Prebles’ Artforms

Twelfth Edition

Chapter 14

Architecture

 

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Learning Objectives

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

14.3 Discuss how recent innovations in construction techniques and materials have led to the development of new architectural forms.

14.4 Recognize the impact of contemporary environmental concerns on architecture.

 

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Introduction (1 of 2)

Dolmens in southwest England

One of the oldest surviving structures

Most likely served in housing the dead

Architecture

The art and science of designing and constructing buildings not only for practical purposes

Symbolic and aesthetic

Seeks to enhance daily our daily lives

 

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Dolmens. Golan Heights, Syria.

Photography: akg-images/Erich Lessing. [Fig. 14-1]

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Introduction (2 of 2)

Integration of three issues

Function (how a building is used)

Form (how it looks)

Structure (how it stands up)

 

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Traditional Materials and Methods (1 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

A physics problem

Must design to accommodate compression (pushing), tension (stretching), and bending (curving)

Combination of physical forces

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Traditional Materials and Methods (2 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Three essential components

Supporting skeleton

Outer skin

Operating equipment

Plumbing, electrical wiring, etc.

Not included in earlier centuries

 

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Traditional Materials and Methods (3 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Early buildings

Housing evolution from caves in hunter-gatherer times

Huts and tents to more substantial structures

Regional styles developed from available materials

Not yet modern transportation or technology to spread styles

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Traditional Materials and Methods (4 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Wood, stone, and brick

Each has strengths and weaknesses

Light wood used for roof beams

Heavy stone used for load-bearing but ineffective as a beam

Most of world’s major architecture composed of stone because of its permanence, availability, and beauty

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Traditional Materials and Methods (5 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Dry Masonry

Piling stones atop one another

Called masonry when done with a consistent pattern

Stones dressed if they are cut or shaped

Great Zimbabwe in East Africa

Original function still unknown

No windows, as they weaken masonry

Great pyramids in Egypt

Machu Picchu in Peru

Mesa Verde in southwestern United States

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Great Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe. Before 1450. Height of wall 30’. Plan. [Fig. 14-2a]

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Great Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe. Before 1450. Height of wall 30’. Interior. Lynn Y/Shutterstock. [Fig. 14-2b]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (6 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Post and Beam

Post-and-beam (post-and-lintel)

Vertical posts bear the weight of horizontal beams and carry it to the ground.

Form determined by strengths and weaknesses of materials used

Stone beams shorter than wooden beams

Strength-to-weight ratios

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Post-and-Beam Construction. [Fig. 14-3]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (7 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Post and beam

Row of columns is a colonnade

Seen in Colonnade and Court of Amenhotep III

Symmetrical arrangement

Arrangement generally hierarchical

Refined by Greeks

Parthenon and other architecture

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Colonnade and Court of Amenhotep III, Temple of Amun-Mut-Khonsu. c.1300 BCE. View of the Great Court. 18th dynasty. Fotolia. [Fig. 14-4]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (8 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Round Arch and Vault

Round arch

Supported by column or pier

Called barrel vault when extended into tunnel-like structure

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Round Arch. [Fig. 14-5]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (9 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Round Arch and Vault

Vault

Curving ceiling or roof structure

Bricks or blocks in a unified shell

Reinforced concrete in recent times

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Barrel Vault. [Fig. 14-6]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (10 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Round Arch and Vault

Vault

Roman construction

First to use vaults above ground

Developed intersection of two barrel vaults called a groin arch

Final stone set in place at the top called keystone

Load-bearing

Series of these called an arcade

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Groin Vault. [Fig. 14-7]

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Arcade.

[Fig. 14-8]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (11 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Round Arch and Vault

Vault

Roman construction

Aqueduct bridge, Pont du Gard

Top level carried water

First level a bridge for traffic

Introduced liquid concrete

Cheap, stonelike, versatile, and strong

 

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Pont du Gard. Nîmes, France. 15 CE. Limestone. Height 161’; length 902’. Filip Fuxa/Shutterstock. [Fig. 14-9]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (12 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Dome

Hemispherical vault built up from a circular or polygonal base

Weight pushes downward and outward along circumference

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Dome (arch rotated 180°). [Fig. 14-10a]

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Dome on a cylinder. [Fig. 14-10b]

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Dome on pendentives. [Fig. 14-10c]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (13 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Dome

Hagia Sophia, Byzantine cathedral

Built sixth century

Islamic Minaret towers added later

Dome resting on triangular pendentives

Carry enormous weight down to squares of supporting walls

Appears to float due to row of windows encircling the base

 

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Hagia Sophia. Istanbul, Turkey. 532–35 CE. Exterior. Photograph: Ayhan Altun. [Fig. 14-11a]

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Hagia Sophia. Istanbul, Turkey. 532–35 CE. Interior. Photograph: Ayhan Altun. [Fig. 14-11b]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (14 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Pointed Arch and Vault

New technology in the Western world

As seen in the center aisle, cathedral of Notre-Dame de Chartres

Steeper than a round arch

Sends weight directly downward

Sideways thrust must be countered by supports

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Notre-Dame de Chartres. Chartres, France. 1145–1513. Interior, nave. Height 122’, width 53’, length 130. © 2018 Scala, Florence. [Fig. 14-12]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (15 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Pointed Arch and Vault

Gothic builders

Buttresses at right angles to outer walls bear thrust

Flying buttresses in some structures

Carry weight outward

Place skeleton on outside to allow more height and light (symbol of God’s presence)

Highest part of interior above the main altar

 

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Gothic Arch [Fig. 14-13]

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Flying Buttresses. [Fig. 14-14]

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Traditional Materials and Methods (16 of 16)

14.1 Identify the characteristics of traditional architectural materials and methods.

Wooden Frameworks

Timbers or logs used as trusses

Triangular framework used to span or support

Balloon frame

Timbers replaced with thin studs held together with nails

Reduced construction time and wood consumption

Aided rapid settlement

 

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Trusses. [Fig. 14-15]

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Balloon Frame. [Fig. 14-16]

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Modern Materials and Methods (1 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Cast Iron

19th century uniform smelting technology

Allowed for lighter exterior walls and flexible interior spaces

The Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton

Built for the first international exposition

Covered 19 acres of park land

Freed from past styles of construction

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Modern Materials and Methods (2 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Cast Iron

The Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton

Glass and cast iron not applied as ornamentation, but structure

Inspired by leaf structures

Flexible modular units

Showed defect of susceptibility to fire

Buckling of unprotected metal struts

Burned down in 1936

 

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Joseph Paxton. Crystal Palace. London. 1850–1851. Cast iron and glass. British Library. [Fig. 14-17]

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Modern Materials and Methods (3 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Multistory steel-frame construction in the late 1880s

Elevators

Louis Sullivan

First great modern architect

Early skyscrapers

Wainwright Building in St. Louis

Exterior reflects interior frame

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Louis Sullivan. Wainwright Building. St. Louis, Missouri. 1890–1891. Getty Images. [Fig. 14-18]

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Modern Materials and Methods (4 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Louis Sullivan

“Form ever follows function” allowed rethinking of structure from inside out

International Style

Expressed function of each building

Works with underlying structure

Logical

 

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Modern Materials and Methods (5 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Le Corbusier

Domino Construction System

Six steel supports placed in concrete slabs at approximate location of spots on a domino game piece

Supporting floors and roof on interior load-bearing rather than exterior

Allows for more windows

Flexible living spaces

 

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Le Corbusier. Domino Construction System. Perspective drawing for Domino Housing Project. 1914. © F.L.C./ADAGP, Paris/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 2018. [Fig. 14-19]

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Modern Materials and Methods (6 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Walter Gropius

International Style

Bauhaus

Dessau, Germany

Non-weight–bearing curtain walls made of glass

 

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Walter Gropius. Bauhaus Building. Exterior. 1926–27. LianeM/Shutterstock. [Fig. 14-20]

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Modern Materials and Methods (7 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Frank Lloyd Wright

Building with an awareness of surroundings

First to use open planning

Eliminated walls between rooms

Placed windows in corners

Sliding glass doors inspired by Japanese screens

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Modern Materials and Methods (8 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Frank Lloyd Wright

Use of cantilevers

Portion extending far from supporting column or wall

Kaufmann Residence at Bear Run, Pennsylvania

Vertical accents influenced by trees

Seems to float above waterfall

In harmony with nature

 

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Frank Lloyd Wright. Fallingwater (Edgar Kaufmann Residence).

Bear Run, Pennsylvania. 1936. Library of Congress. [Fig. 14-21]

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Modern Materials and Methods (9 of 9)

14.2 Explain how modern materials such as concrete and steel have changed architecture.

Steel and Reinforced Concrete

Steel frame construction

The Seagram Building

Non-load-bearing glass walls

Vertical lines emphasize height and pattern

Gained interior floor space inside the building

Embodies “less is more”

 

 

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Steel-Frame Construction. [Fig. 14-22]

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson. Seagram Building.

New York. 1956–58. Photograph: Andrew Garn. [Fig. 14-23]

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Recent Innovations (1 of 5)

14.3 Discuss how recent innovations in construction techniques and materials have led to the development of new architectural forms.

Suspension structure technique

Bridges and tents

Denver International Airport

Giant tent roof of woven fiberglass

Inspired by Rocky Mountains

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Fentress-Bradburn Architects. Jeppesen Terminal Building. Denver International Airport. 1994. Photograph provided courtesy of the Denver international Airport. [Fig. 14-24]

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Recent Innovations (2 of 5)

14.3 Discuss how recent innovations in construction techniques and materials have led to the development of new architectural forms.

Art museums

A place to exhibit cutting-edge architecture

Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

Like a functional sculpture

Architect called design a “metallic flower”

 

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Frank O. Gehry. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. Bilbao, Spain. 1997. Photograph by Erika Barahona Ede © FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao Museo. [Fig. 14-25]

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Recent Innovations (3 of 5)

14.3 Discuss how recent innovations in construction techniques and materials have led to the development of new architectural forms.

Carbon fiber

Technical advance that allows for weaving of buildings

Aircraft parts, racing-car bodies, bicycle frames

BMW Guggenheim Lab

Public seminar space

Components light enough to be handled by one person easily

Elements on pulleys

Housed seminars on three continents

 

 

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Atelier Bow-Wow. BMW Guggenheim Lab. 2011–12. Berlin, Germany. Open-air, carbon-fiber structure. Photograph: Christian Richters. © 2012 Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. [Fig. 14-26]

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Recent Innovations (4 of 5)

14.3 Discuss how recent innovations in construction techniques and materials have led to the development of new architectural forms.

Cross-laminated timber (CLT)

Carbon-neutral building material

Laminated slabs of wood

Grains at an angle

As strong as concrete

Much lighter

Fire-resistant

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Recent Innovations (5 of 5)

14.3 Discuss how recent innovations in construction techniques and materials have led to the development of new architectural forms.

Cross-laminated timber (CLT)

Radiator Building, Portland

One of the largest structures

Vertical accents

Programmable slats over windows

Automated response to earthquakes

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PATH Architecture. The Radiator Building. Portland, Oregon. 2015.

Andrew Pogue Photography. [Fig. 14-27]

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Building Green (1 of 5)

14.4 Recognize the impact of contemporary environmental concerns on architecture.

 

Architects increasingly trying to reduce impact on environment

Green Building Council in U.S.

Awards for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

mkSolaire Home, Michelle Kaufmann

Green single-family home design

Efficient insulation and low-flow fixtures

 

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Michelle Kaufmann. mkSolaire Home. 2008. Prefabricated house. As exhibited at Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago. Photograph: John Swain Photography. Courtesy of Michelle Kaufmann. [Fig. 14-28]

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Building Green (2 of 5)

14.4 Recognize the impact of contemporary environmental concerns on architecture.

 

Architects rehabilitating old buildings rather than build new

The Green Building, Kentucky

Re-adapted 120-year-old store

Brick walls insulated with material from recycled blue jeans

Flooring 100 percent recycled

Reduced energy use

Geothermal wells below building tapped for heating air and water

Solar panels

 

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(fer) studio. The Green Building. Louisville, Kentucky. 2009.

Douglas Pierson, pod architecture + design PLLC/Christopher Mercier, (fer) studio. Photograph © Ted Wathen/Quadrant. [Fig. 14-29]

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Building Green (3 of 5)

14.4 Recognize the impact of contemporary environmental concerns on architecture.

 

Y.S. Sun Green Building Research Center, Taiwan

First building in Asia to earn LEED Platinum rating

Roof has drought-tolerant plants and solar panels

Wind turbines generate some of the building’s energy needs

Concrete was sustainably produced

No materials were imported

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Joe Shih Architects. Y.S. Sun Green Building Research Center. Taiwan. 2011.

National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. [Fig. 14-30]

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Building Green (4 of 5)

14.4 Recognize the impact of contemporary environmental concerns on architecture.

 

Most skyscrapers are energy inefficient

Aqua Tower in Chicago

Balconies reduce sway in winds

Structural supports on upper floors require less material

Heat-resistant glass

80,000-square-foot garden on the roof

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Jeanne Gang/Studio Gang Architects. Aqua Tower. Chicago, Illinois. 2010.

© Hedrich Blessing / Steve Hall. [Fig. 14-31]

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Building Green (5 of 5)

14.4 Recognize the impact of contemporary environmental concerns on architecture.

 

Jeanne Gang: Rethinking the High-Rise

Aqua Tower in Chicago

Visually striking tall buildings

Forcing a reconsideration of what is possible

40 Tenth Avenue, New York City

“Solar carved” silhouette

Designed to maximize solar exposure on streets and park below

Surfaces align with the sun’s path

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Jeanne Gang.

Photograph by Sally Ryan. Courtesy of Studio Gang. [Fig. 14-32]

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Jeanne Gang. 40 Tenth Avenue, New York City, anticipated 2019. Night view.

Copyright and courtesy of Studio Gang. [Fig. 14-33]

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Diagram of sun angles on 40 Tenth Avenue.

Copyright and courtesy of Studio Gang. [Fig. 14-34]

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Copyright

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