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(3) Discuss, for each of these two countries, whether these 2 institutions are likely to lead to more democracy or to democratic backsliding in the future, and why. In particular, they must discuss how the two institutions shape the conduct of politics in the countries, and how this affects democracy Prior writing, students must select two countries and two political institutions. Students must select exactly two countries (not one, not three…). There is no restriction of countries. They can select the country that they want as long as it is a real country recognized by the UN. Students must select exactly two political institutions (not one, not three…). They must select two political institutions among those covered in Part B of the module. The political institutions covered in Part B are: – Federalism or unitary organisation (which includes the organisation of parliament in one or two houses) – Electoral system (proportional, majoritarian, pluralitarian, mixed) – Possibility to organise referendums or not – Type of government (presidential, parliamentary, semi-presidential) – Type of constitutional review (European, American) 3. Content Essay 2 requires students to mobilise knowledge acquired during Parts A and B of the module. Essay 2 must contain: – An introduction stating precisely what are the two countries and two political institutions selected – A discussion of whether the selection of the two countries is based on a most similar or most different system design, and why (Part A) – A description of the way the two political institutions work in the two countries selected (Part B) – A discussion of whether the two political institutions selected are likely to lead to more or less democracy in the two countries selected, and why (Parts A and B) – A conclusion summarising the findings of the essay – A list of references 4. Essay-specific marking criteria – An Essay 2 that does not include two countries and two political institutions will get a fail – A good Essay 2 is clear and precise – A good Essay 2 mobilises at least five pieces of the literature – A good Essay 2 is an essay in which the author compares the two countries instead of describing one after the other – A good Essay 2 is an essay in which the author explains the mechanism behind his/her argument.