DESCRIBE THE EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL SIGNS, AND LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF DISEASE CAUSED BY WEST NILE VIRUS IN HORSES DURING THE ARBOVIRAL EPIDEMIC IN HORSES IN SOUTHEAST AUSTRALIA IN 2011.

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DESCRIBE THE EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL SIGNS, AND LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF DISEASE CAUSED BY WEST NILE VIRUS IN HORSES DURING THE ARBOVIRAL EPIDEMIC IN HORSES IN SOUTHEAST AUSTRALIA IN 2011.

Describe the epidemiology, clinical signs, and laboratory confirmation of disease
caused by West Nile Virus in horses during the arboviral epidemic in horses in
southeast Australia in 2011.

1. Answer all parts of this question:
a) Answer both parts of this sub-question:
i. Define insulin resistance. (2 marks)
ii. List the tissues most commonly affected. (3 marks)
b) List the screening and the dynamic tests that can be used to evaluate insulin
sensitivity in horses. Indicate on your list which tests can be performed in a
clinical situation. (8 marks)
c) Discuss the current understanding of the relationship between obesity and insulin
resistance in the adult horse. (17 marks)
2. Answer both parts of this question:
a) Describe the epidemiology, clinical signs, and laboratory confirmation of disease
caused by West Nile Virus in horses during the arboviral epidemic in horses in
southeast Australia in 2011. (20 marks)
b) Briefly discuss the clinical syndromes of the two (2) other endemic arboviral
diseases in Australian horses. (10 marks)
Continued over page
Equine Medicine Paper 1 Page 3 of 4
3. Answer all parts of this question:
a) Define the terms adaptive pain and maladaptive pain and provide an equine
clinical example of each type of pain. (5 marks)
b) Describe the pathophysiology of pain in regards to peripheral and central
nervous system sensitisation and disinhibition. (20 marks)
c) For each of the following drugs state the site of action within the nervous system
(central or peripheral or both): (5 marks)
i. flunixin
ii. xylazine
iii. ketamine
iv. gabapentin
v. lignocaine.
4. Answer all parts of this question: (answer 4 a, in the answer booklet provided)
a) Compare lactated Ringer’s (Hartmann’s solution) with 0.9% saline for initial
intravenous fluid resuscitation in hypovolemic horses. Include approximate
values for ions contained in each solution by completing the fluid composition
table provided in the answer booklet. (10 marks)
b) Briefly discuss the indications for and disadvantages of the following colloid
fluids in horses:
i. fresh frozen plasma (7.5 marks)
ii. hydroxyethyl starch. (7.5 marks)
c) List the clinical and laboratory parameters that may indicate systemic fluid
overload in horses. (5 marks)


 

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The post DESCRIBE THE EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL SIGNS, AND LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF DISEASE CAUSED BY WEST NILE VIRUS IN HORSES DURING THE ARBOVIRAL EPIDEMIC IN HORSES IN SOUTHEAST AUSTRALIA IN 2011. appeared first on My Nursing Paper.

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