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- Chemical Engineering Report Paraphrasing. Field: Chemical Engineering homework help
i would like some one to paraphrase this report for me please. use good vocabulary and no grammar mistake.
The purpose of the experiment was to develop a process for complete removal of calcium ions by ion exchange resin with a regeneration cycle that run during swing and graveyard shifts. The calcium concentration was reduced from 860 ppm to 10 ppm in order to increase the production of cellulosic ethanol. Resin Ion exchange technique was used during the experiment and Calcium Test Kit was used in order to determine the calcium concentration in water. Experimental results show that the Calcium Test Kit manufacture data was only capable in detecting the calcium concentration of specific drops ranging from 1-26 drops. A downflow prototype system was used in order to estimate the capacity of the resin, as seen in the appendix with value of 2.94 eq/L. The regeneration efficiency was estimated to be 42.3%, and for upflow prototype, the maximum velocity allowable to avoid fluidization was estimated to be
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m/s. The experiment was scale up to treat 1000 L of water within 6 hours, and the dimensions of the column were estimated to be 84 cm long and 22.6 cm in diameter. A process flow diagram was drawn with column dimensions, and related pumps, tanks, and valves. A regeneration cycle was designed to regenerate the resin and it worked better as the concentration of the NaCl increased.
Ion exchange is powerful technology that is used to remove impurities from water and other substrates such as calcium ions. In fact, the desired contaminates are removed from water by exchanging it with other non-objectionable, or less objectionable substances.1 The process is reversible, through a process of regeneration that allow the resin to be used multiple times. There are two primary applications of ion exchange, which are water softening and deionization1. In fact, the softening process is used in industry, and it uses a cation exchange resin to remove the calcium and magnesium ions from water. Ion exchange can be also used in hospitals for clinical diagnosis with respect to amino acids. It can be also used in food industry for wine and sugar production. 2 Ion exchange was our means of removing calcium and Ionac 249 resin obtained from Sybron Chemicals, Inc. 3 The purpose of designing ion exchange column is to remove calcium ions from water at 860 ppm to 10 ppm, and to treat the biomass hydrolystae in six hours in order to maintain our production. The basic calculation of the ion exchange design includes the determination of the volume of the stock solution (, which can be calculated from the Equation 1:
Where is the initial calcium concentration, is the final calcium concentration, and is the initial volume.
Characterization of the ion exchange was achieved though the measurement and calculation of the resin exchange capacity which can be estimated using Equation 2
Where EC is the exchange capacity, is the total equivalents of calcium removed, and V is the total volume of resin added to the column.
In addition, the resin regeneration efficiency was calculated using Equation 3:
Where is the mass of Ca2+ removed from the resin and during the regeneration process and is the total amount of Ca2+ absorbs by resin during resin characterization.
In order to determine the calcium concentration in water, Calcium Test Kit was used. The concentration of the calcium can be estimated using Equation 4,
Where is m is slope from the graph, x is the calcium concentration in unit of ppm, and y is the number of drops that needed to change the color of the solution to blue.
Materials and Methods
The apparatus for ion exchange column include a schematic drawing of the ion exchange column that has several components such as panel, pump, rotometer, and columns with direction if the flow rate and the dimensions of the calcium removal column. The design also include pump that pup the fluid from one place to another, valves that control the flow, and screen to prevent the washout of the resin (Figure 1) . The experiment was followed the ion exchange Pilot plant SOP. 3 In order to start the experiments, five dilutions with three replicates were prepared at 0, 40, 100, 160, and 200 ppm. 17.2 g of CaCO3 was added, and dissolved in liquid water at concentration of 860 ppm. In order to drop the value of the pH, 25 ml of HCl was added. Calcium Test Kit was used in order to determine the calcium concentration based on the number of drops. 10 drops of bottle one were added and then mixed vey well. After that, certain number of drops from bottle 2 was added until the color of the solution turned blue.
Figure 2. Calcium Test Kit. The picture shows bottle one and bottle two that were used during the experiment in order to determine the calcium concentration (ppm)
Resin characterization should be carried suing downflow prototype. The volume of the resin is measured to be 20 ml since 30 ml will take more time. The resin should be transferred into a 1 L beaker, and it should be covered completely by pouring potable water. The resin was transferred into the column, and the water can flow in by turning the pump on and bypass the flow meter. 12 samples were collected during the experiment. During the experiment, the rotometer should be at constant flow rate that is 100, 200, or 300 ml/min, and the pump should be submerged to get accurate data. The data was recorded every 5 min to estimate the number of drops at each period. In addition, the air bubbles should be removed completely from the column because the air bubbles may affect the pumping capability. The calcium-loaded resin was removed from the column and store until the third period of the experiment.
The regeneration of the ion exchange resin was achieved by using the solution of NaCl. 6 L of 6000 ppm NaCl solution was prepared and then it was transferred directly to the column. Downflow direction were used at constant flow rate that was 100 ml/min, and 12 samples were collected every 2.5 min using timer. Calcium Test Kit was used to estimate the calcium concentration based on the number of drops. The amount of the resin removed from water and the regeneration efficiency was calculated.
Results and Discussion
The capability of the ion exchange column with a 860 ppm Ca2+ was analyzed, and then the values were compared to the values in the ion exchange Pilot plant SOP at 640 ppm. Fig 3 shows the relationship between the calcium concentrations in (ppm) versus the number of drops, and compere the values to the manufacturing data. The data shows that the maximum calcium concentration that the Calcium Test kit can detect was 520ppm. In fact, the maximum calcium concentration for the samples was 860 ppm. This means that the Calcium Test kit failed to estimate the calcium concentration for drops larger than 26 drops. The Calcium test kit may not give us accurate data once we added the 10 drops from bottle two to the solutions because the test kit did not have the capability to test such high calcium concentration. The experiment may work very well if the calcium concentration below 520 ppm. For drops that is larger than 26, the calcium concentration was estimated using the equation of the line in (Appendix Figure 3).
Figure 3. Calcium concentration in the downflow water versus the number of drops
The Calcium Test Kit also failed to estimate the calcium concentration that is lower than 20 ppm since one drop from bottle 2 indicates that the calcium concentration is 20 ppm.
The data also shows that the calcium concentration change as the time changed (Appendix Figure 4). The graph illustrates that during the first eight minutes, the calcium concentration was increasing slowly until it reaches nine minutes where the concentration of calcium began to increase exponentially. This illustrates the idea that at the first eight minutes, the calcium concentration was low because the virgin resin has the capacity to absorb Ca2+. As the calcium concentration began to increase, the capacity of resin become very low. The process becomes stable at 14 min where the calcium concentration is estimated to be constant since the resin become full, and cannot absorb any Ca2+. The value of the calcium removed from water was calculated by estimating the area under the curve. The resin exchange capacity was calculates as 2.94 Eq/l (Appendix).
Figure 4. Calcium concentration in outflow solution at different time period.
The value of the resin capacity was compared to the value in the product information that is 1.9 Eq/l.1 the percent of error was estimated to be 54.7%.
The regeneration of the resin was achieves by the addition of the NaCl solution. 30 ml of HCl was measured and transferred to a 1 L beaker. 28. 82 L of NaCl was dissolved in the solution till the concentration reached 6000 ppm. A downflow prototype was used and calcium Test Kit was used to measure the calcium concentration. The calculation of the volume of NaCl was shown in the (appendix). At the end, regeneration of the resin was plotted as shown in (Figure 5), and the value for the regeneration efficiency was calculated to be 42.3%.
After analyzing the graphs and performing the calculation, there is some consideration of error that should be addressed. First of all, the rotometer flow rates was not set at constant flow rates in lab period two which result in reaching the maximum capacity in a short period of time. In addition, the pump was not completely submerged, and the column has an entrained air and bubbles that affect the pumping capability. Other error may come from the amount of that is used and did not dissolve completely.
Figure 5. Regeneration of the Resin
The goal of this was not only perform calculation analysis, but also to perform deign scale-up that can be helpful in future projects. The design consists of centrifuge; pump, feed solution, rotometer, valves to control the flow, ion exchange with resin, screen to prevent the resin washout, and product solution (Fig 1 a and 1 b). In this case, our team developed a strategy to determine the amount of that should be added based on the ratio of 640 ppm and 860 ppm. Since the price of the resin is very expensive, the team decides to use a little amount of the resin that is about 14.3 L. This means that the volume of the scale up design can be found by using Equation 5:
Both the volume of the column and the volume of the resin were calculated in the appendix, 0.047 l and 0.02 l respectively.
The volume of the column for the large scale was calculated to be 0.0036
From this we can estimate diameter of the column using the equation:
Since we want the height of our scale up design to be twice the height, this means that h = 84 m
So, D= 22.6 cm
Moreover, the flow rate was calculated to be 333.3 L/hr using the volume of the batch (1000 L) and time of the process, which is 3 hr. For the regeneration of the resin, the regeneration ratio was calculated from the equation shown in the appendix, and the value appears to be 0.04, which is a good value. The volume of the was calculated to be 28.82 L while the flow rate was determined to be 4.8 L/hr (Appendix).
Figure 6.process flow diagram for the scale-up design.
In conclusion, the primary goal of the experiment was to remove calcium ions from water using ion exchange resin. The experiments involved a preparation of five dilutions in order to develop a standard curve of the calcium concentration versus the number of drops. A linear standard curve was plotted and the capacity of the resin was estimated to be 2.94 eq/L with 54.7% while maximum velocity to avoid fluidization was estimated to be m/s. Finally, the regeneration efficiency was calculated to be 42.3%. The rotometer recommended to be kept at a constant flow rate that is 100 ml/min in order to get more accurate data.
Therrtical 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0 400.0 420.0 440.0 460.0 480.0 500.0 520.0 Expermintal 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 15.0 24.0 32.0 36.0 38.0 44.0 44.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 300.0 480.0 640.0 720.0 760.0 880.0 880.0
Number of drops
Calcium Concentration (ppm)
Calcium Removal at 100 mL/min 0 2 4 6 8 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 0.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 300.0 480.0 640.0 720.0 760.0 880.0 880.0
Calcium Concentration (ppm)
Regeneration of the Resin
0.5 2.0 4.0 6.0 10.0 16.0 22.0 28.0 36.0 42.0 50.0 60.0 1000.0 760.0 640.0 540.0 500.0 440.0 300.0 280.0 220.0 180.0 140.0 100.0
Calcium Concentraion (ppm)