Promoting Big Ideas and Broadened Horizons 7

Exploring PSYCHOLOGY

MyersEx9e_FM.indd iMyersEx9e_FM.indd i 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

MyersEx9e_FM.indd iiMyersEx9e_FM.indd ii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

this page left intentionally blank

 

 

INTERNATIONAL EDITION

Special Contributor

C. Nathan DeWall, University of Kentucky

WORTH PUBLISHERS

Hope College Holland, Michigan

David G. Myers

Exploring PSYCHOLOGY

NINTH EDITION

MyersEx9e_FM.indd iiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd iii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

Senior Vice President, Editorial and Production: Catherine Woods Publisher: Kevin Feyen Executive Marketing Manager: Katherine Nurre Development Editors: Christine Brune, Nancy Fleming Director of Print and Digital Development: Tracey Kuehn Media Editor: Elizabeth Block Supplements Editors: Betty Probert, Nadina Persaud Photo Editor: Bianca Moscatelli Photo Researcher: Donna Ranieri Art Director: Babs Reingold Cover Designers: Lyndall Culbertson and Babs Reingold Interior and Chapter Opener Designer: Charles Yuen Layout Designer: Lee Ann McKevitt Cover Photo Illustrator: Lyndall Culbertson Associate Managing Editor: Lisa Kinne Project Editor: Jeanine Furino Marketing Assistant: Julie Tompkins Illustration Coordinators: Bill Page, Janice Donnola Illustrations: TSI Graphics, Keith Kasnot, Todd Buck Production Manager: Sarah Segal Composition: TSI Graphics Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley

Library of Congress Control Number: 2012948473

Hardcover: ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-6679-6 ISBN-10: 1-4292-6679-1 Paperback: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-1172-3 ISBN-10: 1-4641-1172-3 Loose-Leaf: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-0840-2 ISBN-10: 1-4641-0840-4 PI edition: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-4705-0 ISBN-10: 1-4641-4705-1

© 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by Worth Publishers

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

All royalties from the sale of this book are assigned to the David and Carol Myers Foundation, which exists to receive and distribute funds to other charitable organizations.

Worth Publishers Macmillan Higher Education 41 Madison Avenue Houndmills, Basingstoke New York, NY 10010 RG21 6XS, England www.worthpublishers.com www.macmillanhighered.com/

international

Photo Credits: Cover: Profi le of smiling woman: JGI/Jamie Grill/Getty Images; Man taking a photo: Pedro Vidal/Shutterstock; Mother with baby daughter: Erik Isakson/age fotostock; Circus juggler: RubberBall/SuperStock; Chapter 1: pp. viii, xlii–1, 31, 33: Spiral: Charles Yuen; Water: Photodisc/Getty Images; Rabbit: Mike Kemp/ Getty Images; Magnifying glass: Charles Yuen; MRI: Living Art Enterprises, LLC/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Infant: Lane Oatey/Getty Images; Man holding boxes: Erik Isakson/ age fotostock; Girl studying: OJO Images Ltd/Alamy. Chapter 2: pp. viii, 34–35 and 72, 75: Circuit boards: Charles Yuen; Female kicking: Lev Olkha /Shutterstock; Fox: Eric Isselée/Shutterstock; Brain scan: Zephyr/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Butterfl y: Dim154/ Shutterstock. Chapter 3: pp. ix, 76–77 and 113, 115: Butterfl ies: Svetlana Larina/ istockphoto; Butterfl ies: polarica/istockphoto; Cup of coffee: Vasca/Shutterstock; Sleeping toddler: swissmacky/Shutterstock; Woman meditating: INSADCO Photography/Alamy. Chapter 4: pp. ix, 116–117 and 159, 161: Bucket in sand: René/istockphoto; Beach and palm tree: Charles Yuen; Beach ball: WendellandCarolyn/istockphoto; Mother helping daugh- ter with homework: Indeed/Getty Images; Teens texting: Allan Shoemake/Getty Images; Bride and groom: bluehand/Shutterstock; Mother holding baby: Erik Isakson/age fotostock; Baby being fed with spoon: Asia Images/Getty Images. Chapter 5: pp. ix, 162–163 and 187, 189: Petri dish: Samuel Ashfi eld/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Chromosomes: Pasieka/ Photo Researchers, Inc.; Swans: The Boston Globe/John Tlumacki; Dad and child: MGP/ Getty Images; Teenagers of different heights: Rob Lewine/Getty Images; She-male: vita khorzhevska/Shutterstock; Teenage couple: Petrenko Andriy/Shutterstock. Chapter 6: pp. x, 190–191 and 232, 235: Herbs: Ivonne Wierink/Shutterstock; Herbs: Margrit Hirsch/ Shutterstock; Citrus: Lauren Burke/Jupiterimages; Man with cello: sbarabu/Shutterstock; Child kissing mother’s face: Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./Blend Images/Corbis; Woman holding fl ower: Asia Images Group/Superstock. Chapter 7: pp. x, 236–237 and 267, 269: Nest with eggs: Duncan Usher/Foto Natura/Getty Images; Trees: Yuriy Kulyk/Shutterstock, Tungphoto/Shutterstock, irin-k/Shutterstock, Perfect Picture Parts/Alamy; Cat: Eric Isselée/Shutterstock; Pigeon: Vitaly Titov & Maria SideInikova/Shutterstock; Kids playing videogames: Stanislav Sointsev/Getty Images; Dog doing stunts: Marina Jay/Shutterstock; Girl on laptop: Lauren Burke/Getty Images; People with books on heads: Image Source/ SuperStock. Chapter 8: pp. xi, 270–271 and 301, 303: Film strips: Charles Yuen; Mouse trap: Darren Matthews/Alamy; Cookie: Jean Sandler/FeaturePics; Girl studying: Sigrid Olsson/PhotoAlto/Corbis; Man taking photo: Pedro Vidal/Shutterstock; Hot air balloon: D. Hurst/Alamy. Chapter 9: pp. xi, 304–305 and 347, 349: Various balls: Charles Yuen; Woman running hurdles: Ocean/Corbis; Man doing crossword: Ann Baldwin/Shutterstock; Puzzle pieces: Alexey Lebedev/Shutterstock; Woman shooting basketball: Blend Images/ Jupiterimages; Man playing saxophone: Masterfi le (Royalty-Free Division); Elephant: Johan Swanepoel/Alamy. Chapter 10: pp. xii, 350–351 and 386: Vietnam landscape: Charles Yuen; Girl using cell phone: Thomas Northcut/Jupiterimages; Woman on treadmill: PhotoObjects.net/Jupiterimages; Teenage boys: Photodisc/Jupiterimages; Woman with arms raised: Mark Andersen/agefotostock. Chapter 11: pp. xii, 389–390 and 419, 421: Fruit and vegetables: Charles Yuen; Two women laughing: Mark Andersen/Getty Images; Man look- ing angry: PhotoSpin, Inc./Alamy; Man kissing dog: Photos.com/Getty Images; Man medi- tating: Dean Mitchell/Shutterstock; Woman touching ground: IMAGEMORE/agefotostock: Nun praying: PhotosIndia.com LLC/Alamy; Tissues, aspirin: D. Hurst/Alamy. Chapter 12: pp. xiii, 422–423 and 453, 455: Masks: Charles Yuen, Bartosz Hadyniak/istockphoto, Perry Correll/Shutterstock, brytta/istockphoto, Hemera Technologies/Jupiterimages; Happy dog: Erik Lam/Shutterstock; Centaur: Liquidlibrary/Jupiterimages; Girl: Timothy Large/Shutterstock; Circus juggler: RubberBall/Superstock. Chapter 13: pp. xiii, 456–457 and 501, 503: Aerial beach scene: Brand X Pictures; Football: Todd Taulman/ Shutterstock; Blog links: Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance; Wrench: Punchstock/Corbis; Gaming console: Microsoft Corporation; Tattooed arm: David Katzenstein/Photolibrary; Dancing couple: Photodisc/Jupiterimages. Chapter 14: pp. xiii, 504–505 and 541: Upset woman: Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Jupiterimages; Eyes: Blend Images/Alamy, Photodisc/ Getty Images; Tarantula: Martin Harvey/Jupiterimages; Snake: Hemera Technologies/ Jupiterimages; Blindfolded woman leading man: Erik Isakson/age footstock; Depressed man: Image Source/Getty Images. Chapter 15: pp. xiv, 544–545 and 578, 580: Crocus fl ow- ers through snow: Myotis/Shutterstock; Couple on bicycle: RubberBall/SuperStock; Healthy woman: RubberBall/Nicole Hill/Jupiterimages; People in rainforest: Randy Faris/Corbis.

MyersEx9e_FM.indd ivMyersEx9e_FM.indd iv 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

For Sara Neevel with gratitude for your meticulous support, and for your friendship

MyersEx9e_FM.indd vMyersEx9e_FM.indd v 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

vi PREFACE

DAVID MYERS received his psychology Ph.D. from the Univer- sity of Iowa. He has spent his career at Hope College in Michigan, where he has taught dozens of introductory psychology sections. Hope College students have invited him to be their commencement speaker and voted him “outstanding professor.”

His research and writings have been recognized by the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize, by a 2010 Honored Scientist award from the Federation of Associations in Behavioral & Brain Sciences, by a 2010 Award for Service on Behalf of Personality and Social Psychology, and by three honorary doctorates.

Myers’ scientific articles have, with support from National Science Foun- dation grants, appeared in three dozen scientific periodicals, including Science, American Scientist, Psychological Science, and the American Psycholo- gist. In addition to his scholarly writing and his textbooks for introduc- tory and social psychology, he also digests psychological science for the general public. His writings have appeared in four dozen magazines, from Today’s Education to Scientific American. He also has authored five general audience books, including The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils.

David Myers has chaired his city’s Human Relations Commission, helped found a thriving assistance center for families in poverty, and spoken to hundreds of college and community groups. Drawing on his experience, he also has written three dozen articles and a book (A Quiet World) about hearing loss, and he is advocating a transformation in American assis- tive listening technology (see www.hearingloop.org). For his leadership, he received an American Academy of Audiology Presidential Award in 2011, and the Hearing Loss Association of America Walter T. Ridder Award in 2012.

He bikes to work year-round and plays regular pick-up basketball. David and Carol Myers have raised two sons and a daughter, and have one granddaughter.

ABOUT THE AUTHORABOUT THE AUTHOR

vi

MyersEx9e_FM.indd viMyersEx9e_FM.indd vi 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

PREFACE vii

BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface . . . xv

Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life . . . xxxiv

CHAPTER 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . 1

CHAPTER 2 The Biology of Behavior . . . 35

CHAPTER 3 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind . . . 77

CHAPTER 4 Developing Through the Life Span . . . 117

CHAPTER 5 Gender and Sexuality . . . 163

CHAPTER 6 Sensation and Perception . . . 191

CHAPTER 7 Learning . . . 237

CHAPTER 8 Memory . . . 271

CHAPTER 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . 305

CHAPTER 10 Motivation and Emotion . . . 351

CHAPTER 11 Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing . . . 389

CHAPTER 12 Personality . . . 423

CHAPTER 13 Social Psychology . . . 457

CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders . . . 505

CHAPTER 15 Therapy . . . 545

APPENDIX A Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . A-1

APPENDIX B Psychology at Work . . . B-1

APPENDIX C Subfi elds of Psychology . . . C-1

APPENDIX D Complete Chapter Reviews . . . D-1

APPENDIX E Answers to Experience the Testing Effect Questions . . . E-1

Glossary . . . G-1

References . . . R-1

Name Index . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . SI-1 vii

MyersEx9e_FM.indd viiMyersEx9e_FM.indd vii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

Preface . . . xv

Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life . . . xxxiv

Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . 1

CHAPTER1 What Is Psychology? . . . 2

Psychology’s Roots . . . 2

Contemporary Psychology . . . 5 Psychology’s Biggest Question . . . 5

Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis . . . 6

Psychology’s Subfi elds . . . 8

The Need for Psychological Science . . . 10 What About Intuition and Common Sense? . . . 10

The Scientifi c Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble . . . 13

Critical Thinking . . . 15

How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? . . . 15

The Scientifi c Method . . . 15

Description . . . 17

Correlation . . . 20

Experimentation . . . 22

Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology . . . 25

Improve Your Retention—and Your Grades . . . 29

The Biology of Behavior . . . 35

CHAPTER2 Biology and Behavior . . . 36

Neural Communication . . . 36 Neurons . . . 36

The Neural Impulse . . . 37

How Neurons Communicate . . . 38

How Neurotransmitters Infl uence Us . . . 40

The Nervous System . . . 41 The Peripheral Nervous System . . . 42

The Central Nervous System . . . 44

The Endocrine System . . . 45

The Brain . . . 46 Older Brain Structures . . . 47

CLOSE UP: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined . . . . 48

The Cerebral Cortex . . . 53

Our Divided Brain . . . 59

Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain . . . 61

Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences . . . 62

Genes: Our Codes for Life . . . 62

Twins and Adoption Studies . . . 63

Gene-Environment Interaction . . . 67

Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature . . . 68

Natural Selection and Adaptation . . . 69

Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities . . . 70

viii

CONTENTSCONTENTS

MyersEx9e_FM.indd viiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd viii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

CONTENTS ix

Consciousness and the Two- Track Mind . . . 77

CHAPTER3 The Brain and Consciousness . . . 78

Dual Processing: The Two-Track Mind . . . 79

Selective Attention . . . 80

Sleep and Dreams . . . 83 Biological Rhythms and Sleep . . . 83

Sleep Theories . . . 88

Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorders . . . 89

Dreams . . . 93

Hypnosis . . . 97 Frequently Asked Questions About Hypnosis . . . 97

Explaining the Hypnotized State . . . 98

Drugs and Consciousness . . . 100 Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction . . . 100

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Addiction . . . 101

Types of Psychoactive Drugs . . . 102

Infl uences on Drug Use . . . 109

Developing Through the Life Span . . . 117

CHAPTER4 Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues . . . 118

Prenatal Development and the Newborn . . . 118 Conception . . . 118

Prenatal Development . . . 119

The Competent Newborn . . . 120

Infancy and Childhood . . . 121 Physical Development . . . 121

Cognitive Development . . . 124

CLOSE UP: Autism and “Mind-Blindness” . . . 130

Social Development . . . 132

Refl ections on Nature and Nurture . . . 139

Adolescence . . . 140 Physical Development . . . 140

Cognitive Development . . . 141

Social Development . . . 143

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve? . . . 147

Emerging Adulthood . . . 148

Refl ections on Continuity and Stages . . . 149

Adulthood . . . 150 Physical Development . . . 150

Cognitive Development . . . 153

Social Development . . . 154

Refl ections on Stability and Change . . . 158

Gender and Sexuality . . . 163

CHAPTER5 Gender Development . . . 164

Genes: How Are We Alike? How Do We Differ? . . . 164

The Nature of Gender: Our Biology . . . 167

The Nurture of Gender: Our Culture . . . 169

Human Sexuality . . . 171 The Physiology of Sex . . . 171

The Psychology of Sex . . . 175

CLOSE UP: The Sexualization of Girls . . . 177

MyersEx9e_FM.indd ixMyersEx9e_FM.indd ix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

x CONTENTS

Sexual Orientation . . . 178 Environment and Sexual Orientation . . . 179

Biology and Sexual Orientation . . . 180

An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality . . . 183

Gender Differences in Sexuality . . . 183

Natural Selection and Mating Preferences . . . 184

Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective . . . 185

Refl ections on Gender, Sexuality, and Nature–Nurture Interaction . . . 185

Sensation and Perception . . . 191

CHAPTER6 Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception . . . 192

Transduction . . . 192

Thresholds. . . 193

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Can Subliminal Messages Control Our Behavior? . . . 195

Sensory Adaptation . . . 196

Perceptual Set . . . 197

Context Effects . . . 198

Emotion and Motivation . . . 199

Vision . . . 200 The Stimulus Input: Light Energy . . . 200

The Eye . . . 200

Visual Information Processing . . . 202

Color Vision . . . 206

Visual Organization . . . 208

Visual Interpretation . . . 214

Hearing . . . 216 The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves . . . 216

The Ear. . . 216

The Other Senses . . . 220 Touch . . . 220

Pain . . . 220

Taste . . . 224

Smell . . . 225

Body Position and Movement . . . 227

Sensory Interaction . . . 227 THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ESP—Perception

Without Sensation? . . . 230

Learning . . . 237

CHAPTER7 How Do We Learn? . . . 238

Classical Conditioning . . . 239 Pavlov’s Experiments . . . 240

Pavlov’s Legacy . . . 244

Operant Conditioning . . . 246 Skinner’s Experiments . . . 246

Skinner’s Legacy . . . 253

CLOSE UP: Training Our Partners . . . 255

Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning . . . 255

Biology, Cognition, and Learning . . . 256 Biological Constraints on Conditioning . . . 256

Cognition’s Infl uence on Conditioning . . . 259

Learning by Observation . . . 261 Mirrors and Imitation in the Brain . . . 262

Applications of Observational Learning . . . 263

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Does Viewing Media Violence Trigger Violent Behavior? . . . 265

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xMyersEx9e_FM.indd x 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

CONTENTS xi

Memory . . . 271

CHAPTER8 Studying Memory . . . 272

Memory Models . . . 273

Building Memories: Encoding . . . 274 Dual-Track Memory: Effortful Versus Automatic

Processing . . . 274

Automatic Processing and Implicit Memories . . . 275

Effortful Processing and Explicit Memories . . . 275

Memory Storage . . . 280 Retaining Information in the Brain . . . 281

Synaptic Changes . . . 283

Retrieval: Getting Information Out . . . 285 Measuring Retention . . . 285

Retrieval Cues . . . 286

Forgetting . . . 289 Forgetting and the Two-Track Mind . . . 290

Encoding Failure . . . 291

Storage Decay . . . 291

Retrieval Failure . . . 292

Memory Construction Errors . . . 294 Misinformation and Imagination Effects . . . 295

Source Amnesia . . . 296

Discerning True and False Memories . . . 297

Children’s Eyewitness Recall . . . 297

Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? . . . 298

Improving Memory . . . 299

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . 305

CHAPTER9 Thinking . . . 306

Concepts . . . 306

Problem Solving: Strategies and Obstacles . . . 307

Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments . . . 308

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Fear Factor—Why We Fear the Wrong Things . . . 310

Thinking Creatively . . . 314

CLOSE UP: Fostering Your Own Creativity . . . 315

Do Other Species Share Our Cognitive Skills? . . . 316

Language . . . 318 Language Structure . . . 318

Language Development . . . 319

The Brain and Language . . . 322

Do Other Species Have Language? . . . 323

Thinking and Language . . . 326 Language Infl uences Thinking . . . 326

Thinking in Images . . . 328

Intelligence . . . 329 What Is Intelligence? . . . 329

Assessing Intelligence . . . 333

Aging and Intelligence . . . 337

CLOSE UP: Extremes of Intelligence . . . 338

Genetic and Environmental Infl uences on Intelligence . . . 339

Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores . . . 342

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xii CONTENTS

Motivation and Emotion . . . 351

CHAPTER10 Motivational Concepts . . . 352

Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology . . . 352

Drives and Incentives . . . 353

Optimum Arousal . . . 353

A Hierarchy of Motives . . . 355

Hunger . . . 356 The Physiology of Hunger . . . 357

The Psychology of Hunger . . . 359

Obesity and Weight Control . . . 361

CLOSE UP: Waist Management . . . 363

The Need to Belong . . . 364 The Benefi ts of Belonging . . . 364

The Pain of Being Shut Out . . . 365

Connecting and Social Networking . . . 367

CLOSE UP: Managing Your Social Networking . . . 369

Achievement Motivation . . . 370

Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition . . . 371

Historical Emotion Theories . . . 372

Schachter–Singer Two Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion . . . 373

Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus: Does Cognition Always Precede Emotion? . . . 374

Embodied Emotion . . . 376 The Basic Emotions . . . 376

Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System . . . 377

The Physiology of Emotions . . . 377

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Lie Detection . . . 379

Expressed and Experienced Emotion . . . 378 Detecting Emotion in Others . . . 379

Gender and Emotion . . . 381

Culture and Emotion . . . 382

The Effects of Facial Expressions . . . 384

Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing . . . 389

CHAPTER11 Stress and Health . . . 390

Stress: Some Basic Concepts . . . 390

Stress and Illness . . . 394

CLOSE UP: Tips for Handling Anger . . . 398

Coping With Stress . . . 401 Personal Control . . . 401

Optimism Versus Pessimism . . . 404

Social Support . . . 405

CLOSE UP: Pets Are Friends, Too . . . 408

Reducing Stress . . . 407 Aerobic Exercise . . . 407

Relaxation and Meditation . . . 409

Faith Communities and Health . . . 410

Happiness . . . 412 Positive Psychology . . . 413

What Affects Our Well-Being? . . . 414

What Predicts Our Happiness Levels? . . . 417

CLOSE UP: Want to Be Happier? . . . 418

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

CONTENTS xiii

Personality . . . 423

CHAPTER12 The Psychodynamic Theories . . . 424

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious . . . 424

The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists . . . 424

Assessing Unconscious Processes . . . 424

Evaluating Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious . . . 424

Humanistic Theories . . . 432 Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person . . . 433

Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective . . . 433

Assessing the Self . . . 434

Evaluating Humanistic Theories . . . 434

Trait Theories . . . 435 Exploring Traits . . . 436

Assessing Traits . . . 437

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How to Be a “Successful” Astrologer or Palm Reader . . . 438

The Big Five Factors . . . 439

Evaluating Trait Theories . . . 441

Social-Cognitive Theories . . . 443 Reciprocal Infl uences . . . 443

Assessing Behavior in Situations . . . 445

Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories . . . 445

Exploring the Self . . . 446 The Benefi ts of Self-Esteem . . . 447

Self-Serving Bias . . . 448

Culture and the Self . . . 450

Social Psychology . . . 457

CHAPTER13 Social Thinking . . . 458

The Fundamental Attribution Error . . . 458

Attitudes and Actions . . . 460

Social Infl uence . . . 463 Cultural Infl uences . . . 463

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures . . . 465

Obedience: Following Orders . . . 467

Group Behavior . . . 471

Social Relations . . . 475 Prejudice . . . 476

CLOSE UP: Automatic Prejudice . . . 477

Aggression . . . 481

Attraction . . . 487

CLOSE UP: Online Matchmaking and Speed Dating . . . 488

Altruism . . . 493

Confl ict and Peacemaking . . . 496

Psychological Disorders . . . 505

CHAPTER14 What Is a Psychological Disorder? . . . 506

Understanding Psychological Disorders . . . 506

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xiii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xiv CONTENTS

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ADHD—Normal High Energy or Genuine Disorder? . . . 507

Classifying Disorders—and Labeling People . . . 509

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Insanity and Responsibility . . . 512

Anxiety Disorders . . . 512 Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . 513

Panic Disorder . . . 513

Phobias . . . 513

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder . . . 514

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder . . . 515

Understanding Anxiety Disorders . . . 516

Mood Disorders . . . 519 Major Depressive Disorder . . . 520

Bipolar Disorder . . . 520

Understanding Mood Disorders . . . 521

CLOSE UP: Suicide and Self-Injury . . . 524

Schizophrenia . . . 528 Symptoms of Schizophrenia . . . 528

Onset and Development of Schizophrenia . . . 529

Understanding Schizophrenia . . . 530

Other Disorders . . . 534 Dissociative Disorders . . . 534

Eating Disorders . . . 536

Personality Disorders . . . 537

Rates of Psychological Disorders . . . 540

Therapy . . . 545

CHAPTER15 Treating Psychological Disorders . . . 546

The Psychological Therapies . . . 546 Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic

Therapy . . . 547

Humanistic Therapies . . . 548

Behavior Therapies . . . 550

Cognitive Therapies . . . 554

Group and Family Therapies . . . 557

Evaluating Psychotherapies . . . 559 Is Psychotherapy Effective? . . . 560

Which Psychotherapies Work Best? . . . 562

Evaluating Alternative Therapies . . . 563

How Do Psychotherapies Help People? . . . 565

Culture and Values in Psychotherapy . . . 566

CLOSE UP: A Consumer’s Guide to Mental Health Professionals . . . 567

The Biomedical Therapies . . . 568 Drug Therapies . . . 568

Brain Stimulation . . . 571

Psychosurgery . . . 574

Therapeutic Lifestyle Change . . . 574

Preventing Psychological Disorders . . . 576 Resilience . . . 576

Creating Healthy Environments . . . 577

APPENDIX A: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . A-1

APPENDIX B: Psychology at Work . . . B-1

APPENDIX C: Subfi elds of Psychology . . . C-1

APPENDIX D: Complete Chapter Reviews . . . D-1

APPENDIX E: Answers to Experience the Testing Effect Questions . . . E-1

Glossary . . . G-1

References . . . R-1

Name Index . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . SI-1

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xivMyersEx9e_FM.indd xiv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

PREFACE

Throughout its nine editions, my unwavering vision for Exploring Psychology has been to merge rigorous science with a broad human perspective that engages both mind and heart. I aim to offer a state-of-the-art introduction to psychological science that speaks to students’ needs and interests. I aspire to help students understand and appreciate the wonders of their everyday lives. And I seek to convey the inquisitive spirit with which psychologists do psychology.

I am genuinely enthusiastic about psychology and its applicability to our lives. Psychological science has the potential to expand our minds and enlarge our hearts. By studying and applying its tools, ideas, and insights, we can supplement our intuition with critical thinking, restrain our judgmentalism with compas- sion, and replace our illusions with understanding. By the time students complete this guided tour of psychology, they will also, I hope, have a deeper understand- ing of our moods and memories, about the reach of our unconscious, about how we f lourish and struggle, about how we perceive our physical and social worlds, and about how our biology and culture in turn shape us. (See TABLES 1 and 2, next page.)

Believing with Thoreau that “anything living is easily and naturally expressed in popular language,” I seek to communicate psychology’s scholarship with crisp narra- tive and vivid storytelling. “A writer’s job,” says my friend Mary Pipher, “is to tell stories that connect readers to all the people on Earth, to show these people as the complicated human beings they really are, with histories, families, emotions, and legitimate needs.” Writing as a solo author, I hope to tell psychology’s story in a way that is warmly personal as well as rigorously scientific. I love to ref lect on connec- tions between psychology and other realms, such as literature, philosophy, history, sports, religion, politics, and popular culture. And I love to provoke thought, to play with words, and to laugh. For his pioneering 1891 Principles of Psychology, William James sought “humor and pathos.” And so do I.

I am grateful for the privilege of assisting with the teaching of this mind- expanding discipline to so many students, in so many countries, through so many different languages. To be entrusted with discerning and communicating psychol- ogy’s insights is both an exciting honor and a great responsibility.

Creating this book is a team sport. Like so many human achievements, it is the product of a collective intelligence. Woodrow Wilson spoke for me: “I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow.” The thousands of instructors and millions of students across the globe who have taught or studied (or both!) with this book have contributed immensely to its development. Much of this contribu- tion has occurred spontaneously, through correspondence and conversations. For this edition, we also formally involved 1061 researchers and teaching psycholo- gists, and 251 students, in our efforts to gather accurate and up-to-date information about the f ield of psychology and the content, study aids, and supplements needs of instructors and students in the introductory course. We look forward to continuing feedback as we strive, over future editions, to create an ever better book and teach- ing package.

What’s NEW? This ninth edition is the most carefully reworked and extensively updated of all the revisions to date. This new edition features improvements to the organization and presentation, especially to our system of supporting student learning and remembering.

xv

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xvMyersEx9e_FM.indd xv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xvi PREFACE

TABLE 1 Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics

The evolutionary perspective is covered on the following pages:

TABLE 2 Neuroscience

In addition to the coverage found in Chapter 2, neuroscience can be found on the following pages:

Aggression, pp. 482–483 Aging: physical exercise and the brain, p. 152 Animal language, pp. 316–317 Antisocial personality disorder, pp. 538–539 Arousal, pp. 175–176 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

(ADHD) and the brain, p. 507 Autism, pp. 130–131 Automatic prejudice: amygdala, p. 477 Biofeedback, p. 409 Biopsychosocial approach, pp. 6–7

aggression, p. 487 aging, pp. 152, 157, 291 dementia and Alzheimer’s, p. 284 development, pp. 186–187 dreams, pp. 93–94 drug use, pp. 109–112 emotion, pp. 141, 283, 374–375, 378,

381–382 hypnosis, pp. 99–100 learning, pp. 256–260 pain, pp. 222–223 personality, p. 444 psychological disorders, p. 508 sleep, pp. 83–88 therapeutic lifestyle change, pp. 574–575

Brain development: adolescence, p. 140 experience and, pp. 122–123 infancy and childhood, p. 124 sexual differentiation in utero, p. 169

Brain stimulation therapies, pp. 572–573

Cognitive neuroscience, pp. 4, 78 Drug dependence, pp. 109–111 Emotion and cognition, pp. 371–372 Emotional intelligence and brain damage,

p. 333 Fear learning, p. 518 Fetal alcohol syndrome and brain abnor-

malities, p. 120 Hallucinations: pp. 107–108 Hallucinations and:

near-death experiences, pp. 107–108 schizophrenia, p. 529 sleep, p. 95

Hormones and: abuse, pp. 136–137 appetite, pp. 357–358 development, p. 167 in adolescents, pp. 167, 140–141 of sexual characteristics, pp. 167–168 emotion, pp. 378–379 gender, p. 167 sex, pp. 150–151 sexual behavior, pp. 171–173 stress, pp. 377, 391–393, 394–396, 405 weight control, p. 359

Hunger, p. 357 Insight, pp. 307–308 Intelligence, p. 334

creativity, pp. 314–315 twins, pp. 339–340

Language, pp. 318, 322–323 and deafness, p. 322 and thinking in images, p. 328

Light-exposure therapy: brain scans, p. 564 Meditation, pp. 409–410 Memory:

emotional memories, p. 283 explicit memories, pp. 281–282 implicit memories, pp. 282–283 physical storage of, pp. 280–282 and sleep, pp. 88, 95 and synaptic changes, pp. 283–285

Mirror neurons, pp. 262–263 Neuroscience perspective, defined, p. 7 Neurotransmitters and:

anxiety disorders, pp. 518, 569 biomedical therapy:

depression, pp. 523–525, 569–570 ECT, pp. 571–572 schizophrenia, pp. 530, 568–569

child abuse, p. 137 cognitive-behavioral therapy: obsessive-

compulsive disorder, p. 557 depression, pp. 523–525 drugs, pp. 100, 102 exercise, p. 407 narcolepsy, pp. 92–93 schizophrenia, pp. 530, 532

Observational learning and brain imaging, p. 261

Optimum arousal: brain mechanisms for rewards, pp. 353–355

Orgasm, p. 173 Pain, p. 220

phantom limb pain, p. 222 virtual reality, pp. 223–224

Parallel vs. serial processing, p. 205 Perception:

brain damage and, p. 205 color vision, pp. 206–208 feature detection, p. 204 transduction, p. 192 visual information processing,

pp. 200–202 Perceptual organization, pp. 208–211 Personality and brain-imaging, p. 437 Post-traumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) and the limbic system, pp. 515–516

Psychosurgery: lobotomy, p. 574 Schizophrenia and brain abnormalities,

pp. 530–531, 532 Sensation:

body position and movement, p. 227 deafness, pp. 217–218 hearing, pp. 216–217 sensory adaptation, p. 196 smell, pp. 225–226 taste, pp. 224–225 touch, p. 220 vision, p. 200

Sexual orientation, pp. 180, 182 Sleep:

cognitive development and, p. 96 memory and, p. 88 recuperation during, p. 88

Smell and emotion, p. 226 Unconscious mind, pp. 431–432

Aging, pp. 151–152 Anxiety disorders, p. 518 Biological predispositions:

in learning, pp. 256–260 in operant conditioning, pp. 258–260

Brainstem, p. 47 Consciousness, p. 78 Darwin, Charles, p. 6 Depression and light exposure therapy, p. 564 Emotion, effects of facial expressions and,

pp. 384–385 Emotional expression, pp. 382–383 Evolutionary perspective, defined, p. 7 Exercise, pp. 407–408 Fear, p. 310 Feature detection, p. 204 Hearing, p. 216 Hunger and taste preference, p. 359 Instincts, p. 352 Intelligence, pp. 329–331, 333–334,

343–346 Language, pp. 318–319, 320–322 Love, pp. 154–156 Math and spatial ability, pp. 342–343 Mating preferences, pp. 184–185 Menopause, pp. 150–151 Need to belong, p. 364 Obesity, p. 461

Overconfidence, pp. 311–312 Perceptual adaptation, p. 215 Puberty, onset of, pp. 148–149 Sensation, p. 192 Sensory adaptation, p. 196 Sexual orientation, p. 181 Sexuality, pp. 173, 183–184 Sleep, pp. 84, 88 Smell, pp. 225–226 Taste, pp. 224–225

See also Chapter 2, The Biology of Behavior.

Abuse, intergenerational transmission of, p. 264

Adaptability, p. 53 Aggression, pp. 579–580

intergenerational transmission of, p. 264 Autism, pp. 130–131 Behavior genetics perspective, p. 7 Biological perspective, p. 36 Brain plasticity, p. 58 Continuity and stages, p. 149 Deprivation of attachment, p. 136 Depth perception, p. 210 Development, p. 119 Drives and incentives, p. 353 Drug dependence, p. 110 Drug use, pp. 109–112 Eating disorders, p. 536 Epigenetics, p. 120 Happiness, pp. 412–413 Hunger and taste preference, pp. 359–360 Intelligence:

Down syndrome, pp. 338–339 genetic and environmental influences,

pp. 339–346 Learning, pp. 256–257, 258–259 Motor development, p. 123 Nature–nurture, pp. 5–6

twins, p. 6

Obesity and weight control, pp. 361–362 Parenting styles, p. 138 Perception, pp. 214–215 Personality traits, p. 437–440 Psychological disorders and:

ADHD, p. 507 anxiety disorders, p. 517 biopsychosocial approach, p. 508 depression, p. 523 insanity and responsibility, p. 512 mood disorders, pp. 523–524 personality disorders, pp. 538–539 post-traumatic stress syndrome,

pp. 515–516 schizophrenia, pp. 531–533

Reward deficiency syndrome, p. 52 Romantic love, pp. 154–156 Sexual disorders, pp. 173–174 Sexual orientation, p. 180 Sexuality, p. 173 Sleep patterns, p. 87 Smell, pp. 225–226 Stress, personality, and illness, pp. 397–399

managing stress with exercise, pp. 407–409 Traits, pp. 341-342

See also Chapter 2, The Biology of Behavior.

TTT

Behavior genetics is covered on the following pages:

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviMyersEx9e_FM.indd xvi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

PREFACE xvii

NEW Study System Follows Best Practices From Learning and Memory Research The new learning system harnesses the testing effect, which documents the benefits of actively retrieving information through self-testing (FIGURE 1). Thus, each chap- ter now offers 15 to 20 new Retrieve It questions interspersed throughout. Creating these desirable difficulties for students along the way optimizes the testing effect, as does immediate feedback (via inverted answers beneath each question).

In addition, each main section of text begins with numbered questions that establish learning objectives and direct student reading. The Chapter Review section repeats these questions as a further self-testing opportunity (with answers in the Complete Chapter Reviews appendix). The Chapter Review section also offers a page-referenced list of key terms and concepts, and new Experience the Testing Effect questions in multiple formats to promote optimal retention.

FIGURE 1 Testing effect For suggestions of how students may apply the testing effect to their own learning, watch this 5-minute YouTube animation: www.tinyurl.com/HowToRemember

Nearly 1000 New Research Citations My ongoing scrutiny of dozens of scientific periodicals and science news sources, enhanced by commissioned reviews and countless e-mails from instructors and students, enables my integrating our field’s most important, thought-provoking, and student-relevant new discoveries. Part of the pleasure that sustains this work is learning something new every day! (For a complete list of significant changes to the content, see www.worthpub.com/myers.)

Reorganized Chapters In addition to the new study aids and updated coverage, I’ve introduced the following organizational changes:

• Chapter 1 concludes with a new section, “Improve Your Retention—And Your Grades.” This guide will help students replace ineffective and inefficient old habits with new habits that increase retention and success.

• The contents of the previous edition’s Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity chap- ter are now integrated throughout the text, including in Chapters 2, 4, 5, 12, and 13. (See Table 4 on page xxi.)

• Chapter 4, Developing Through the Life Span, has been shortened by moving the Aging and Intelligence coverage to Chapter 9, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence.

• NEW Chapter 5, Gender and Sexuality, includes new and significantly reorganized discussions.

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xvii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xviii PREFACE

• Chapter 6, Sensation and Perception, now covers both topics in a more efficient and integrated fashion (rather than covering sensation first, then perception). Coverage of the deaf experience is now in Chapter 9, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence.

• Chapter 7, Learning, now has a separate Biology, Cognition, and Learning section that more fully explores the biological and cognitive constraints on learning.

• Chapter 8, Memory, follows a new format, and more clearly explains how differ- ent brain networks process and retain memories. I worked closely with Janie Wilson (Professor of Psychology at Georgia Southern University and Vice President for Pro- gramming of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology) in this chapter’s revision.

• Chapter 10 now combines Motivation with Emotion. • Chapter 11, Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing, now includes discussion of

positive psychology, well-being, and personal control.

• Chapter 12, Personality, offers improved coverage of modern-day psychodynamic approaches, which are now more clearly distinguished from their historical Freud- ian roots.

• The Social Psychology chapter now follows the Personality chapter. • Chapter 14, Psychological Disorders, now includes coverage of eating disorders,

previously in the Motivation chapter.

Clinical Chapters Were Carefully Reviewed and Signifi cantly Improved With helpful guidance from clinical psychologist colleagues, I have strengthened the clinical perspective, which has improved the Personality, Psychological Disorders,

and Therapy chapters, among others. For example, I cover problem- focused and emotion-focused coping strategies and the relationship of psychotherapy to cancer survival in the Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing chapter, and the Intelligence chapter describes how psychol- ogists use intelligence tests in clinical settings. Material from today’s positive psychology is also woven throughout (see TABLE 3).

In addition, the Personality and Therapy chapters now more clearly distinguish between historical psychoanalysis and modern-day psycho- dynamic theories.

New Time Management Section for Students To help students maximize their reading, studying, and exam prepara- tion efforts, a new student preface offers time management guidance.

Beautiful New Design and Contemporary New Photo Program This new, more open and colorful design, chock full of new photos and illustrations, provides a modern visual context for the book’s up-to- date coverage.

Dedicated Versions of Next-Generation Media This ninth edition is accompanied by the dramatically enhanced Psych- Portal, which adds new features (LearningCurve formative assess- ment activities and Launch Pad carefully crafted prebuilt assignments) while incorporating the full range of Worth’s psychology media products (Video Tool Kit, PsychInvestigator, PsychSim). (For details, see p. xxv.)

TABLE 3 Examples of Positive Psychology

Coverage of positive psychology topics can be found in the following chapters: Topic Chapter Altruism/Compassion 4, 9, 12, 13, 15 Coping 11 Courage 13 Creativity 8, 12, 13 Emotional intelligence 9, 13 Empathy 4, 7, 11, 13, 15 Flow 10 Gratitude 10, 11, 13 Happiness/Life Satisfaction 4, 10, 11 Humility 13 Humor 11, 13 Justice 13 Leadership 10, 12, 13, App B Love 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Morality 4 Optimism 11, 12 Personal control 11 Resilience 4, 11, 13, 15 Self-discipline 4, 10, 12 Self-efficacy 11, 12 Self-esteem 10, 12 Spirituality 11, 13 Toughness (grit) 9, 10 Wisdom 3, 4, 9, 12, 13

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xviii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

PREFACE xix

What Continues? Eight Guiding Principles Despite all the exciting changes, this new edition retains its predecessors’ voice, as well as much of the content and organization. It also retains the goals—the guiding principles—that have animated the previous eight editions:

Facilitating the Learning Experience 1. To teach critical thinking By presenting research as intellectual detective

work, I illustrate an inquiring, analytical mindset. Whether students are studying development, cognition, or social behavior, they will become involved in, and see the rewards of, critical reasoning. Moreover, they will discover how an empirical approach can help them evaluate competing ideas and claims for highly publicized phenomena—ranging from ESP and alternative therapies, to astrology and repressed and recovered memories.

2. To integrate principles and applications Throughout—by means of anec- dotes, case histories, and the posing of hypothetical situations—I relate the fi ndings of basic research to their applications and implications. Where psychology can illu- minate pressing human issues—be they racism and sexism, health and happiness, or violence and war—I have not hesitated to shine its light.

3. To reinforce learning at every step Everyday examples and rhetorical ques- tions encourage students to process the material actively. Concepts presented earlier are frequently applied, and reinforced, in later chapters. For instance, in Chapter 3, students learn that much of our information processing occurs outside of our con- scious awareness. Ensuing chapters drive home this concept. Numbered Learning Objective Questions at the beginning of each main section, Retrieve It self-tests throughout each chapter, a marginal glossary, and Chapter Review key terms lists and self-tests help students learn and retain important concepts and terminology.

Demonstrating the Science of Psychology 4. To exemplify the process of inquiry I strive to show students not just the out-

come of research, but how the research process works. Throughout, the book tries to excite the reader’s curiosity. It invites readers to imagine themselves as partici- pants in classic experiments. Several chapters introduce research stories as mysteries that progressively unravel as one clue after another falls into place.

5. To be as up-to-date as possible Few things dampen students’ interest as quickly as the sense that they are reading stale news. While retaining psychology’s classic studies and concepts, I also present the discipline’s most important recent developments. More than 900 references in this edition are dated 2009–2012. Like- wise, the new photos and everyday examples are drawn from today’s world.

6. To put facts in the service of concepts My intention is not to fi ll students’ intellectual fi le drawers with facts, but to reveal psychology’s major concepts—to teach students how to think, and to offer psychological ideas worth thinking about. In each chapter, I place emphasis on those concepts I hope students will carry with them long after they complete the course. Always, I try to follow Albert Einstein’s purported dictum that “everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” Learning Objective Questions and Retrieve It questions throughout each chapter help students focus on the most important concepts.

Promoting Big Ideas and Broadened Horizons 7. To enhance comprehension by providing continuity Many chapters

have a signifi cant issue or theme that links subtopics, forming a thread that ties the chapter together. The Learning chapter conveys the idea that bold

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xixMyersEx9e_FM.indd xix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xx PREFACE

thinkers can serve as intellectual pioneers. The Thinking, Language, and Intelli- gence chapter raises the issue of human rationality and irrationality. The Psycho- logical Disorders chapter conveys empathy for, and understanding of, troubled lives. Other threads, such as cognitive neuroscience, dual processing, and cultural and gender diversity, weave throughout the whole book, and students hear a consistent voice.

8. To convey respect for human unity and diversity Throughout the book, readers will see evidence of our human kinship—our shared biological heritage, our common mechanisms of seeing and learning, hungering and feeling, loving and hating. They will also better understand the dimensions of our diversity—our individual diversity in development and aptitudes, temperament and personality, and disorder and health; and our cultural diversity in attitudes and expressive styles, child-rearing and care for the elderly, and life priorities.

Continually Improving Cultural and Gender Diversity Coverage This edition presents an even more thoroughly cross-cultural perspective on psychology (TABLE 4)—ref lected in research findings and text and photo exam- ples. New Chapter 5, Gender and Sexuality, allows a separate-chapter focus on the psychology of women and men, though these topics are also thoroughly integrated throughout the text (see TABLE 5). In addition, I am working to offer a world-based psychology for our worldwide student readership. Thus, I continually search the world for research findings and text and photo examples, conscious that readers may be in Melbourne, Sheffield, Vancouver, or Nairobi. North American and European examples come easily, given that I reside in the United States, maintain contact with friends and colleagues in Canada, subscribe to several European periodicals, and live periodically in the U.K. This edition, for example, offers many dozens of Canadian, British, and Australian and New Zealand examples. We are all citizens of a shrink- ing world, thanks to increased migration and the growing global economy. Thus, American students, too, benefit from information and examples that international- ize their world-consciousness. And if psychology seeks to explain human behavior (not just American or Canadian or Australian behavior), the broader the scope of studies presented, the more accurate is our picture of this world’s people. My aim is to expose all students to the world beyond their own culture, and I continue to welcome input and suggestions from all readers. Discussion of the relevance of cultural and gender diversity begins on the first page of the first chapter and contin- ues throughout the text.

Strong Critical Thinking Coverage I aim to introduce students to critical thinking throughout the book. Revised Learning Objective Questions at the beginning of each main section, and Retrieve It questions throughout each chapter, encourage critical reading to glean an understanding of important concepts. This ninth edition also includes the following opportunities for students to learn or practice their critical think- ing skills.

• Chapter 1, Thinking Critically With Psychological Science, introduces students to psychology’s research methods, emphasizing the fallacies of our everyday intuition and common sense and, thus, the need for psychological science. Critical thinking is introduced as a key term in this chapter (p. 15). Appendix A, Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life, encourages students to “focus on thinking smarter by applying simple statistical principles to everyday reasoning.”

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xxMyersEx9e_FM.indd xx 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

PREFACE xxi

TABLE 4 Culture and Multicultural Experience

Culture and multicultural experience is covered on the following pages:

TABLE 5 The Psychology of Men and Women

The psychology of men and women is covered on the following pages:

Absolute thresholds, pp. 193–194 ADHD, p. 607 Adulthood: physical changes, pp. 150–151 Aggression, pp. 481–483

father absence, p. 484 pornography, pp. 484–485 rape, pp. 484, 485

Alcohol: and addiction, p. 103 and sexual aggression, pp. 102–103 use, pp. 102–103

Altruism, pp. 493–494 Antisocial personality disorder,

pp. 538–539 Attraction, pp. 487–491 Autism, p. 140 Behavioral effects of gender, pp. 26–27 Biological predispositions in color

perceptions, p. 257 Biological sex/gender, pp. 167–168 Bipolar disorder, pp. 520–521 Body image, pp. 536–537 Color vision, pp. 206–208 Conformity/obedience, p. 467–470 Dating, p. 488 Depression, pp. 520, 521–522

learned helplessness, p. 526 Dream content, pp. 93–94 Drug use:

biological influences, p. 110

psychological/social-cultural influences, pp. 110–112

Eating disorders, pp. 536–537 Emotion-detecting ability, pp. 379–381,

381–382 Empty nest, p. 156 Father care, p. 135 Father presence, p. 177 Freud’s views:

evaluating, pp. 430–432 identification/gender identity,

pp. 426–427 Oedipus/Electra complexes, p. 426 penis envy, p. 428

Fundamental attribution error, pp. 458–459

Gender: and anxiety, p. 513 and child-rearing, pp. 170–171 development, p. 164 “missing women,” p. 477 prejudice, pp. 476–478 roles, pp. 169–170 similarities/differences, pp. 164–166

Gendered brain, pp. 167, 175, 182–183 Generic pronoun “he,” p. 327 Grief, pp. 157–158 Group polarization, p. 473 Happiness, pp. 417–418 Hearing loss, pp. 217–218, 322

Hormones and: aggression, p. 482 sexual behavior, pp. 171–172 sexual development, pp. 140–141, 167 testosterone-replacement therapy, p. 172

Intelligence: bias, p. 345 stereotype threat, pp. 345–346

Leadership: transformational, p. B12 Losing weight, p. 363 Love, pp. 154–156, 491–493 Marriage, p. 155, 405 Maturation, pp. 140–141 Menarche, p. 140 Menopause, p. 151 Midlife crisis, p. 154 Obesity:

genetic factors, pp. 361–362 health risks, p. 361

Observational learning: sexually violent media, p. 265 TV’s influence, pp. 263–264

Pain sensitivity, p. 221 Pornography, pp. 175–176 Prejudice, p. 306 Psychological disorders, rates of, p. 540 PTSD: development of, pp. 515–516 Rape, p. 481 Religiosity and life expectancy, pp. 410, 412 REM sleep, arousal in, p. 86

Romantic love, pp. 491–493 Savant syndrome, p. 331 Schizophrenia, p. 528 Self-injury, p. 525 Sense of smell, pp. 225–226 Sexual attraction, pp. 184–185 Sexual dysfunctions, pp. 173–174 Sexual fantasies, p. 176 Sexual orientation, pp. 178–173 Sexuality, pp. 175–176 Sexuality:

adolescent, pp. 176–178 evolutionary explanation, pp. 183–184 external stimuli, pp. 175–176 imagined stimuli, p. 176

Sexualization of girls, p. 177 Stereotyping, p. 198 Stress and:

AIDS, p. 396 depression, pp. 399–400 health, and sexual abuse, p. 407 heart disease, pp. 397–398 immune system, pp. 394–396 response to, pp. 392–394

Suicide, pp. 524–525 Teratogens: alcohol consumption, p. 120 Women in psychology’s history, p. 3

See also Chapter 5, Gender and Sexuality, and Chapter 13, Social Psychology.

Aggression, p. 484 and video games, pp. 265, 485–486

Aging population, pp. 151–152 AIDS, p. 396 Anger, pp. 398–399 Animal research ethics, pp. 27–28 Attraction: love and marriage,

pp. 492–493 Attractiveness, pp. 184–185, 490 Attribution: political effects of, p. 459 Behavioral effects of culture, pp. 26–27,

67–68 Body ideal, pp. 536–537 Body image, pp. 536–537 Categorization, p. 306 Conformity, pp. 465, 467 Corporal punishment practices, pp. 251–252 Cultural norms, pp. 164, 464 Culture:

context effects, pp. 198–199 definition, p. 463 variation over time, p. 464

Culture and the self, pp. 450–451 Culture shock, p. 391 Deaf culture, pp. 58, 61, 320, 321–322 Development:

adolescence, p. 140 attachment, p. 137 child-rearing, pp. 138–139 cognitive development, p. 129 moral development, pp. 142–143 parenting styles, pp. 138–139 social development, pp. 132–133

Drug use, p. 112 Emotion:

emotion-detecting ability, pp. 379–381 Emotion: expressing, pp. 381–382,

383–385 Enemy perceptions, p. 498 Fear, p. 310–311 Flow, p. B1 Fundamental attribution error, p. 458 Gender:

cultural norms, pp. 164, 169 roles, p. 169–170 social power, p. 165

Grief, expressing, pp. 157–158 Happiness, pp. 416–418 Hindsight bias, pp. 11–12 History of psychology, pp. 2–5 Homosexuality, views on, p. 178 Human diversity/kinship, pp. 26–27,

463–464 Identity: forming social, pp. 144–145 Individualism/collectivism, p. 451 Intelligence, pp. 329–330, 343, 344

bias, p. 345 Down syndrome, p. 338 nutrition and, p. 344

Language, pp. 319–321, 326–327, 464 critical periods, pp. 321–322 monolingual/bilingual, p. 327 universal grammar, p. 321

Leaving the nest, pp. 148–149 Life satisfaction, p. 415 Life span and well-being, pp. 156–157

Loop systems for hearing assistance, p. B14

Management styles, pp. B11–B13 Marriage, p. 155 Meditation, pp. 409–410 Memory, encoding, pp. 276–277 Menopause, p. 151 Mental illness rate, pp. 540–541 Motivating achievement, pp. B7–B8 Motivation: hierarchy of needs, p. 355 Need to belong, pp. 364–365 Neurotransmitters: curare, pp. 39–41 Obesity, pp. 361–362, 362–363 Observational learning: television and

aggression, p. 264 Organ donation, pp. 312–313 Pace of life, pp. 19, 464 Pain: perception of, pp. 220–225 Parent and peer relationships,

pp. 145–146 Participative management, pp. B11–B12 Peacemaking:

conciliation, p. 500 contact, p. 499 cooperation, pp. 499–500

Peer influence, pp. 145–147 Power of individuals, pp. 474–475 Prejudice, pp. 24, 29, 476–481

“missing women,” p. 477 Prejudice prototypes, p. 306 Psychological disorders:

cultural norms, p. 506 dissociative personality disorder, p. 534

eating disorders, pp. 508, 536–537 schizophrenia, pp. 508, 531–532 suicide, pp. 524–525 susto, p. 508 taijin-kyofusho, p. 508

Psychotherapy: culture and values in, pp. 566–567 EMDR training, p. 563

Puberty and adult independence, pp. 148–149

Self-esteem, p. 417 Self-serving bias, pp. 448–449 Sex drive, p. 184 Sexual orientation, pp. 178–183 Similarities, pp. 70–72 Sleep patterns, pp. 87–88 Social clock, p. 154 Social loafing, pp. 471–472 Social networking, pp. 367–368 Social-cultural perspective, pp. 7–11 Spirituality: Israeli kibbutz communities,


Choose The Best Assignments Expert who have done on a similar assignment

"Do you have an upcoming essay or assignment due?


Get any topic done in as little as 6 hours

If yes Order Similar Paper

All of our assignments are originally produced, unique, and free of plagiarism.